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Francis T. Hane

In their recent report, Coffel and Horton ( Coffel and Horton 2015 ) present calculations supporting their hypothesis that temperature changes caused by anthropogenic global warming (AGW) may result in aircraft weight restrictions for takeoffs at certain airports. I have recalculated the performance data the authors rely on referencing the Boeing 737–800 Flight Operations Manual (FOM) ( Boeing 2013a ). The FOM is the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certified document relied on by airline

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Charles McLandress and Theodore G. Shepherd

confirmed from diagnostic analyses of the model simulations and as expected from theory. A strengthened BDC will affect the recovery of stratospheric ozone from anthropogenic halogens by speeding up the removal of the halogens ( Butchart and Scaife 2001 ) and changing the latitudinal distribution of ozone. In particular, Shepherd (2008) has shown that a strengthened BDC leads to a super recovery of total ozone in Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitudes and a subrecovery in the tropics. It is well

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Jesse Winchester, Rezaul Mahmood, William Rodgers, Faisal Hossain, Eric Rappin, Joshua Durkee, and Themis Chronis

; Pielke 2001 ; Nair et al. 2011 ; Sen Roy et al. 2011 ). The current study investigates the effects of Kentucky Lake and Lake Barkley [also known as the Land between the Lakes (LBL)] on selected precipitation events using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Figure 1 ). This is the second part of an exploratory and observational data–based research by Durkee et al. (2014) where 12 precipitation events around the LBL region of Kentucky and Tennessee were investigated. They have found

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Chia-Chi Wang, Wei-Liang Lee, and Chia Chou

1. Introduction The impact of anthropogenic aerosols on climate usually refers to the direct and indirect effects of aerosols, which have been extensively investigated (e.g., Lohmann and Lesins 2002 ; Penner et al. 2004 ). In general, aerosols decrease the temperature of the atmosphere and Earth’s surface by reflecting solar radiation, except black carbon, which absorbs solar radiation (the direct effect). This process may influence the convection strength by modifying the vertical

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Zhihong Jiang, Fei Huo, Hongyun Ma, Jie Song, and Aiguo Dai

anthropogenic aerosols on the EASM circulation and on temperature and precipitation over East Asia. As discussed above, model simulations with idealized (e.g., Deng and Xu 2015 ; Chen et al. 2016 ) and realistic (e.g., Ma et al. 2016 ) urbanizations over China have been conducted to study possible responses of East Asian climate. Other numerical studies have also been carried out to investigate aerosols’ effects on East Asian climate (e.g., Jiang et al. 2013 ; Song et al. 2014 ). However, few studies

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Shuangmei Ma, Tianjun Zhou, Dáithí A. Stone, Debbie Polson, Aiguo Dai, Peter A. Stott, Hans von Storch, Yun Qian, Claire Burke, Peili Wu, Liwei Zou, and Andrew Ciavarella

–cloud–climate interactions and through the scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation ( Rosenfeld et al. 2008 ; Lee et al. 2014 ). In addition to their effects in the troposphere, aerosols cool the surface, which offsets the GHG-induced warming and thus its impact on precipitation ( Mitchell et al. 1995 ; Chen et al. 2011 ). Anthropogenic aerosols have been found to weaken the South Asian summer monsoon ( Bollasina et al. 2011 ) and to cause a tendency for global dry land regions to become wetter and wet

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Katsumi Matsumoto and Ben McNeil

1. Introduction Much of the concern with regard to fossil fuel consumption and emissions of CO 2 into the atmosphere is focused on climate change. For example, Working Group 2 of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) has an extensive assessment of adverse effects of enhanced warming and changes in precipitation on human health, native ecosystems, food production, water, and the like ( Parry et al. 2007 ). However, relatively little is discussed about

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Wenju Cai, Tim Cowan, Arnold Sullivan, Joachim Ribbe, and Ge Shi

have multiple ensemble members (see Fig. 2 ), providing a total of 75 experiments. Here the ensemble mean of each model is presented. All CMIP3 models include the direct effect of anthropogenic aerosols, but only 10 models incorporate the additional indirect effect ( Fig. 2 details which models include the indirect effect). Since the single-model experiments in the CSIRO Mk3A ( Rotstayn et al. 2007 ) contain both aerosol effects, to facilitate a better comparison we stratify the experiments into

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Siyan Dong, Ying Sun, and Chao Li

., https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324 . 10.1017/CBO9781107415324 Li , C. , F. Zwiers , X. Zhang , and G. Li , 2018 : How much information is required to well constrain local estimates of future precipitation extremes? Earth’s Future , 7 , 11 – 24 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2018EF001001 . 10.1029/2018EF001001 Li , H. , H. Chen , and H. Wang , 2017 : Effects of anthropogenic activity emerging as intensified extreme precipitation over China . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 122

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Francis W. Zwiers, Xuebin Zhang, and Yang Feng

temperature over the globe is nearly as large as that for mean temperature ( Hegerl et al. 2004 ) enhance our confidence in these detection results. The evidence of anthropogenic influence in extreme temperature at the regional scale should have important implications when considering climate change adaptation strategies. Our analysis is not without some caveats. A potential problem is that we were not able to totally account for the effects of spatial covariance and natural low-frequency variability on

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