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G. Roder, G. Sofia, Z. Wu, and P. Tarolli

1. Introduction Among natural and anthropogenic hazards, water-related disasters represent one of the main environmental risks of our time, causing the major obstacles to human security and development ( Adikari and Yoshitani 2009 ). Floods affect on average about 70 million people each year ( UNDP 2004 ; United Nations 2011 ), and the severity of such events will increase in the future ( Swiss Re 2012 ). These data have intensified the attention of public authorities and researchers in

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Cadeyrn J. Gaskin, Davina Taylor, Susan Kinnear, Julie Mann, Wendy Hillman, and Monica Moran

the direct and indirect effects of climate change. Many of the changes to the climate system in the latter half of the twentieth century are unprecedented ( IPCC 2013 ). Observed trends include the warming atmosphere and oceans; shrinking glaciers and ice sheets; reducing spring snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere; rising sea levels; increasing frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme weather and climate events; rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide

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Alicia Azpeleta Tarancón, Yeon-Su Kim, Thora Padilla, Peter Z. Fulé, and Andrew J. Sánchez Meador

positive feedback to anthropogenic gas emissions ( Bonan 2008 ). Another detrimental consequence of severe wildfires is the deterioration of soil conditions for plants to regenerate. High temperatures reduce soil fertility and increase soil hydrophobicity and soil erosion ( DeBano et al. 1979 ), which increases the risk of shift in species compositions toward shrublands, which are weaker carbon sinks ( Roccaforte et al. 2012 ; Dore et al. 2012 ). Fig . 1. Sky Islands are isolated forested mountain

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Samuel J. Childs, Russ S. Schumacher, and Stephen M. Strader

natural hazards literature, there are multiple definitions and meanings for many of the terms used herein ( Paul 2011 ). We elect to follow the framework of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX), which defines overall hazard risk as the interaction between hazardous weather and impacts as the potential negative effects consequent from the hazard ( National Research

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Abigail Sullivan and Dave D. White

drivers of climate change risk perception A wide range of variables predict people’s risk perception, including deeply held cultural and ideological factors such as political and environmental worldview ( Weber 2010 ). A greater pro-environmental worldview, for example as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale, has been associated with greater risk perception and belief in anthropogenic climate change ( Dunlap 1998 ; Ziegler 2017 ). Other ideological measures, such as market

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Auwal F. Abdussalam, Andrew J. Monaghan, Daniel F. Steinhoff, Vanja M. Dukic, Mary H. Hayden, Thomas M. Hopson, John E. Thornes, and Gregor C. Leckebusch

000 persons solely to ease interpretation. c. Climate change experiments Monthly output from 13 coupled AOGCMs are employed (model details are given in Table 1 ), obtained from the Earth System Grid–Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (ESG-PCMDI). Model scenarios used include the historical simulation and three future projections. The historical simulations were forced by observed natural and anthropogenic atmospheric composition changes spanning 1861–2005. The future

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Ayansina Ayanlade and Margaret Olusolape Jegede

, such as the definition of climate change and global warming, the causes of climate change, and their level of concern for climate change impacts on socioeconomic sectors; they were asked to differentiate statements and issues relating to climate change (What do you think of these statements?), and their experiential knowledge of the effects of climate change. Table 3 presents the results of the assessment of participants’ understanding of the meaning and knowledge of the issues relating to

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Adrian Brügger, Christina Demski, and Stuart Capstick

solid basis to formulate testable hypotheses about when and how experiences are likely to trigger different types of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses. Table 1 provides specific hypotheses (if enough information is available to formulate expectations) and research questions (if it is less clear what to expect) for the discussed processes. Table 1. Personal experiences of climate-relevant events: Overview of theoretically plausible direct and indirect effects and research

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Kerstin K. Zander, Simon Moss, and Stephen T. Garnett

). Exposure to extreme heat compromises people’s health ( Kovats and Hajat 2008 ) and cognitive abilities ( Gaoua et al. 2011 ) and the health burden from heat is predicted to increase as a consequence of climate change ( McMichael and Dear 2010 ). Infants and elderly people ( Bambrick et al. 2011 ) as well as those with pre-existing illnesses ( Zhang et al. 2013 ; Hatvani-Kovacs et al. 2016 ) are among the most vulnerable to the health effects of heat. However, heat also reduces opportunities for

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Yujie Wang, Lianchun Song, Chris Hewitt, Nicola Golding, and Zili Huang

management, the NCC has assessed the combined effects of climate change and increasing vulnerability and exposure to hazardous conditions in China based on climate change projections. Such climate services assist in building long-term resilience through restoration and reconstruction, which focus on reducing the underlying risk factors, siting critical infrastructure, transferring risks, and strengthening disaster preparedness capacity. For example, extreme heat events and extreme precipitation were

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