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Justin E. Bagley, Ankur R. Desai, Paul C. West, and Jonathan A. Foley

an ecosystem provides are altered ( Costanza et al. 1997 ; Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 ; Foley et al. 2005 ). These goods and services provide basic human needs ranging from food production and water supply to soil formation and waste treatment. The regulation of local and regional climates by land–atmosphere interactions ( Foley et al. 2007 ; West et al. 2010 , hereafter WE10 ) is one of these important services. As natural vegetation is removed and replaced with pastures and

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Genki Katata, Haruyasu Nagai, Thomas Wrzesinsky, Otto Klemm, Werner Eugster, and Reto Burkard

( Bruijnzeel and Proctor 1993 ). These studies indicate that fog precipitation is probably more important for the vegetation than rainfall in arid and semiarid coastal areas. Many numerical models have been proposed to estimate the cloud water deposition on the canopy. These models have been based on the cloud water deposition model formulated by Lovett (1984) , hereinafter referred to as the Lovett model. The Lovett model is a multilayer model for atmosphere–vegetation interaction that contains equations

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Fuyao Wang, Michael Notaro, Zhengyu Liu, and Guangshan Chen

comprehensive vegetation biophysical process can reduce the model bias significantly. To have a better understanding of land–atmosphere interaction, a model intercomparison study of the Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) has been done ( Koster et al. 2006 ). With a longer time series and improved model simulations, vegetation–atmosphere feedbacks can be better understood. Acknowledgments We thank Drs. Robert Gallimore and Shu Wu for helpful discussions. This work is supported by NOAA CPPA

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Min Xu, Xin-Zhong Liang, Arthur Samel, and Wei Gao

; Liang et al. 2005a ). Additionally, data source consistency and the realistic specification of seasonal and interannual variations of these parameters, both in terms of phenology and physiology, are necessary to produce reliable global and regional climate model simulations ( Lawrence and Chase 2007 ; Liang et al. 2005a ; Zeng et al. 2002 ). Global remote sensing products are typically used to specify these parameters and improve the representation of land–atmosphere interactions ( Henderson

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C. Kendra Gotangco Castillo and Kevin Robert Gurney

/models/lnd/clm/doc/UsersGuide/book1.html .] Lawrence , D. M. , P. E. Thornton , K. W. Oleson , and G. B. Bonan , 2007 : The partitioning of evapotranspiration into transpiration, soil evaporation, and canopy evaporation in a GCM: Impacts on land–atmosphere interaction . J. Hydrometeor. , 8 , 862 – 880 . Lawrence , D. M. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Parameterization improvements and functional and structural advances in version 4 of the Community Land Model. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 3, M03001, doi:10

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Volker Wulfmeyer, Oliver Branch, Kirsten Warrach-Sagi, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Thomas Schwitalla, and Klaus Becker

. Schwerdtfeger , J. M. Hacker , I. J. Foster , and R. C. G. Smith , 1993 : Land–atmosphere interaction in a semiarid region: The bunny fence experiment . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 74 , 1327 – 1334 , doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1993)074<1327:LIIASR>2.0.CO;2 . Mahfouf , J. F. , E. Richard , and P. Mascart , 1987 : The influence of soil and vegetation on the development of mesoscale circulations . J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 26 , 1483 – 1495 , doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<1483:TIOSAV>2

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Abigail L. S. Swann, Inez Y. Fung, Yuwei Liu, and John C. H. Chiang

) holds in the mid-Holocene as well, and that the expansion of forests in Eurasia is able to enhance a shift in the ITCZ and cross-equatorial energy transport in addition to any changes induced by orbital forcing. 2. Methods To investigate the role of vegetation changes over Eurasia and the Sahara, we use the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere and Land Models with a carbon cycle and slab ocean (CAM3.5-CLM3.5-CASA′) ( Gent et al. 2010 ; Oleson et al. 2008 ; Chen et

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M. Wang, M. Wagner, G. Miguez-Macho, Y. Kamarianakis, A. Mahalov, M. Moustaoui, J. Miller, A. VanLoocke, J. E. Bagley, C. J. Bernacchi, and M. Georgescu

land areas; to our knowledge, there have been no large-scale investigations to quantify hydroclimatic impacts owing to transition of abandoned and degraded farmlands to perennial bioenergy cropping systems. Here, we examine the hydroclimatic effects associated with perennial bioenergy crop deployment on abandoned and marginal land areas over the conterminous United States (CONUS) over a 10-yr contemporary climate period utilizing a coupled land–atmosphere model. We seek to answer the following

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Ben Livneh, Pedro J. Restrepo, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

. , Beljaars A. C. M. , Miller M. J. , and Viterbo P. A. , 1996 : The land surface-atmosphere interaction: A review based on observational and global modeling perspectives . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 ( D3 ), 7209 – 7225 . Bohn, T. J. , Sonessa M. Y. , and Lettenmaier D. P. , 2010 : Seasonal hydrologic forecasting: Is there a role for multimodel ensemble methods? J. Hydrometeor. , 11 , 1358 – 1372 . Bonan, G. B. , Pollard D. , and Thompson S. L. , 1992 : Effects of boreal forest

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Alexis Berg and Justin Sheffield

of soil moisture–atmosphere interactions on surface temperature distribution . J. Climate , 27 , 7976 – 7993 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00591.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00591.1 Berg , A. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Interannual coupling between summertime surface temperature and precipitation over land: Processes and implications for climate change . J. Climate , 28 , 1308 – 1328 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00324.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00324.1 Berg , A. , and Coauthors

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