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Peter H. Stone

-scale instabilities The presence of adiabatic lapse rates in the loweratmosphere raises the possibility that small-scale convection may occur there, especially in low latitudeswhere the solar heating is a maximum. However,the Venera probes, which did land in low latitudes,were not able to detect any turbulence below 40 km(Kerzhanovich et al., 1972) and this suggests that convection does not in fact occur in the deep atmosphere.Such a conclusion is supported by the prediction that aHadley cell will produce a

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Theodore J. Bennett Jr.

responsible for the differences. The model used in this study is rather simple.Among its limitations are a two-layer atmosphere,no hydrological cycle, no topography, and rather severe spectral truncation. Emphasis is on the thermodynamics of the atmosphere-sea ice interaction.Ice dynamics, which are not included, have an important role in the distribution of ice thickness in theArctic. However, sophisticated formulations wouldbe necessary in order to successfully simulate theireffects. Within the

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Xiaoming Sun and Ana P. Barros

Vulnerability: Understanding and Addressing Threats to Essential Resources, Academic Press, 57–78 . Barros , A. P. , and W. Hwu , 2002 : A study of land-atmosphere interactions during summertime rainfall using a mesoscale model . J. Geophys. Res. , 107 , doi: 10.1029/2000JD000254 . Barros , A. P. , and T. J. Lang , 2003 : Monitoring the monsoon in the Himalayas: Observations in central Nepal, June 2001 . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 131 , 1408 – 1427 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<1408:MTMITH>2

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Savini M. Samarasinghe, Yi Deng, and Imme Ebert-Uphoff

1. Introduction Earth’s atmosphere is characterized in general by motions of continuous temporal and spatial scales. The interactions among different scales often form the foundations of various weather and climate phenomena. For example, subweekly, synoptic-scale disturbances constituting storm tracks are known to play an important role in the development of atmospheric blocks, that is, quasi-stationary, vertically coherent high pressure features in the extratropical atmosphere (e.g., Green

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S. G. H. Philander

the atmospheric convection zones of the tropical Pacificexlmnd and merge so that there is a tendency toward slmtially homogeneous conditions. La Nifia is associatedwith low sea surface temperatures near the equator, with atmospheric convergence zones that are isolated fromeach other, and with slmtial scales smaller than those ofEl Nifio. It is proposed that both phases oftbe SouthernOscillation can be attributed to unstable interactions between the tropical ocean and atmosphere. During ElNifio

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Weixing Shen, Isaac Ginis, and Robert E. Tuleya

. (1984) differentiated the relative roles of surface evaporation cutoff and increased friction for landfalling hurricanes. All the above numerical investigations used fixed underlying surface conditions. However, hurricane interaction with underlying surface results in changes of the underlying surface characteristics, in particular change of the surface evaporation, the primary energy source for hurricanes. Hurricane intensity is thus effected by surface feedback mechanisms both over land and water

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John M. Wahr and Abraham H. Oort

construct independent estimates for the total zonal torqueon the atmosphere as a function of latitude. Theseindirect estimates of the total torque are, in a sense,more objective than the direct mountain torque andfriction torque estimates discussed above. That is, theangular momentum estimates do not require assumptions about the nature of the interaction between theatmosphere and the earth. The angular momentumresults are, however, subject to other errors, such asthe limited rawinsonde data coverage

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Syukuro Manabe and Theodore B. Terpstra

NM-model, respectively.North American continent where surface pressure isrelatively high in the actual atmosphere. Since theAleutian low predominates in the NM-model as well asin the M-model, one can infer that mountains are notnecessary for the formation of the low. Instead, thetemperature contrast between land and sea seems to beresponsible for the maintenance of the Aleutian low.[-Recently, Manabe (1969) obtained a similar conclusion based upon the results from a mountainless modelwith highly

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Qiong Zhang, Karin Holmgren, and Hanna Sundqvist

tropical region is associated with the ENSO-like SST. By using the NCEP 20CR data, we have illustrated how the ocean–atmosphere–land interaction leads to the dipole oscillation. The evidence presented in this work further suggests that it is the SST anomaly in the western Indian Ocean along the east coast of tropical Africa that directly influences decadal rainfall variability over southern Africa. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council project “Holocene climate

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Mingfang Ting, Hailan Wang, and Linhai Yu

maintenance of stationary waves suggested by the linear model supports that a more thorough understanding of the nature of the nonlinearity is needed. While it is possible to measure the overall effect of stationary nonlinearity in the atmosphere using the linear model (e.g., Valdes and Hoskins 1989 ; Ting 1994 ), it is impossible to identify the nonlinear effect of each individual forcing and the nonlinear interaction among different forcing components with the linear model alone. A fully nonlinear

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