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E. M. Lane, J. M. Restrepo, and J. C. McWilliams

surface boundary layer. (Thus, β ≤ 1 for currents, and β ≪ 1 for infragravity waves, where β is the ratio of the topographic and mean horizontal scale to that of the waves. It is also the ratio of the time scale of the long waves and variation of the wave quantities to the time scale of the waves.) The wave slope for the spectrum peak components is small (again apart from breaking) (i.e., ε ≪ 1, where ε = Ak is the wave slope). This implies that advection plays a secondary role compared to

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Aidin Jabbari, Leon Boegman, Reza Valipour, Danielle Wain, and Damien Bouffard

. Madsen , 1979 : Combined wave and current interaction with a rough bottom . J. Geophys. Res. , 84 , 1797 – 1808 , https://doi.org/10.1029/JC084iC04p01797 . 10.1029/JC084iC04p01797 Grant , W. D. , and O. S. Madsen , 1986 : The continental-shelf bottom boundary layer . Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. , 18 , 265 – 305 , https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fl.18.010186.001405 . 10.1146/annurev.fl.18.010186.001405 Huntley , D. A. , 1988 : A modified inertial dissipation method for estimating seabed

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Ilson C. A. da Silveira, Glenn R. Flierl, and Wendell S. Brown

1. Introduction Meanders and Rossby-wave-like motion are often found in regions where western boundary currents separate from continental margins. In some cases, the current separation is smooth and the meander amplitudes increase toward the ocean interior ( Fig. 1a ). In others, the current overshoots its separation latitude and retroflects (i.e., turns back on itself), forming a large amplitude lobe near the coast and meanders that decay in the downstream direction ( Fig. 1b ). Eddy

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Pavel S. Berloff and James C. McWilliams

1. Introduction In this paper we focus on the fundamental dynamics of a midlatitude western boundary current (WBC), such as the Gulf Stream, Kuroshio, Somali, East Australian, and Brazil currents. We use an idealized local model of the WBC in a north–south channel. We explore dynamics of the model for a wide range of parameters, including relatively large values of the Reynolds number, Re. In the introduction we outline the background, pose the problem, and formulate the numerical model. In

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Bunmei Taguchi, Niklas Schneider, Masami Nonaka, and Hideharu Sasaki

anomalous advection of spiciness. Questions to be addressed are the following: What are the relative contribution of Rossby waves and spiciness to total OHC variability and what are their regional difference in the North Pacific, particularly in relation to western boundary current variability? What are the spatiotemporal structure, the propagation feature, and the origin of each process contributing to the OHC variability? The rest of the manuscript is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the

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Darryn W. Waugh and Timothy M. Hall

1. Introduction Deep western boundary currents (DWBCs) play an important role in ocean circulations and the climate system. In these currents waters formed in polar and subpolar regions flow into other regions, and even the other hemisphere, transporting freshwater and anthropogenic carbon. Quantifying this transport is thus important for understanding the ocean’s role in redistributing heat, propagating climate anomalies formed in polar regions, and sequestering anthropogenic carbon. Estimates

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Angélique Melet, Jacques Verron, Lionel Gourdeau, and Ariane Koch-Larrouy

1. Introduction It was hypothesized that the Pacific decadal variability is influenced by changes in the strength or water mass properties of the meridional circulation associated with the subtropical cells (STCs; McCreary and Lu 1994 ). The STCs are characterized by subduction in the subtropical gyres, equatorward flow at the thermocline level via both an interior pathway and low-latitude western boundary currents (LLWBCs), equatorial upwelling in the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), and Ekman

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François Primeau and David Newman

boundary currents. J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 6295 – 6312 . Lehoucq , R. B. , D. C. Sorensen , and C. Yang , 1998 : ARPACK Users’ Guide: Solution of Large-Scale Eigenvalue Problems with Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Methods . SIAM, 160 pp . McCalpin , J. D. , and D. B. Haidvogel , 1996 : Phenomenology of the low-frequency variability in a reduced gravity, quasigeostrophic double-gyre model. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 26 , 739 – 752 . Primeau , F. W. , 1998 : Multiple equilibria of a

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Xavier J. Capet and Xavier J. Carton

1. Introduction Boundary currents play an essential role in the mesoscale variability of the ocean. They can expel vortices and filaments seaward, thus participating in the mixing of heat, salt, and chemical (or biological) species in the open ocean. Filaments are a common feature of boundary currents. They lead to rapid mixing between adjacent waters (e.g., coastal and oceanic waters) because their coherence is weak. In contrast, coherent mesoscale vortices have a long lifetime and complex

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Sunke Schmidt and Uwe Send

leading to this stratification. The focus of this work is the freshening part of the seasonal salinity cycle. Figure 2 illustrates a schematic section through the LS and its boundary currents. Single arrows show the direction of volume fluxes and double arrows indicate corresponding freshwater fluxes. Here V i are volumes of water masses and F i is related freshwater fluxes, with F ice net local sea ice melt, F p precipitation minus evaporation, F υ vertical mixing freshwater flux, and

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