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Gerard McCarthy, Elaine McDonagh, and Brian King

March–April 2009, are presented here to extend the record of the decadal variability in the South Atlantic at 24°S. Salinities from three cruises from 1958, 1983, and 2009 ( Fig. 2 ) are compared on neutral density surfaces. Practical salinity is used rather than absolute salinity for ease of comparison with previous studies. Thermocline waters will be shown to have increased in salinity from 1958 to 1983 and freshened from 1983 to 2009. The influence of inflow from the Indian Ocean is estimated by

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Fengfei Song and Tianjun Zhou

possible influence of global warming on the EASM–ENSO relationship is also controversial. Chowdary et al. (2012) argued that the recent strengthened relationship is not entirely due to global warming but also reflects internal variability, since the relationship was also strong 100 years ago. The interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO; Power et al. 1999 ; Folland et al. 2002 ) is an important mode of internal variability, and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Mantua et al. 1997 ) is its North

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Kai Yu and Tangdong Qu

the NECB results in a weaker Kuroshio east of the Philippines, and the meridional advection of potential vorticity is not strong enough to overcome the β effect, allowing more Kuroshio water to penetrate through the Luzon Strait, referred to as the “teapot effect” ( Sheremet 2001 ). The situation during La Niña years is reversed. Both seasonal and interannual variabilities of the LST have been related to the basin-scale wind stress anomalies in the Pacific. But, until this time, the decadal

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Christopher L. P. Wolfe, Sultan Hameed, and Lequan Chi

1. Introduction The dominant paradigm for interannual and decadal upper-ocean variability is based on the idea of stochastic climate variability. This paradigm was introduced by Hasselmann (1976) and Frankignoul and Hasselmann (1977) , who envisioned oceanic variability driven by atmospheric forcing that is essentially random and white; that is, power is evenly distributed in frequency. Because of its large heat capacity, the ocean “reddens” the atmospheric forcing, resulting in pronounced

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Jason C. Furtado, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Niklas Schneider, and Nicholas A. Bond

1. Introduction North Pacific decadal variability (NPDV) is a key component in predictability studies of both regional and global climate change. Namias (1969) identified “climatic regimes” linked to changes in North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) induced by shifts in atmospheric sea level pressure (SLP) patterns in both the winter and summer. Subsequent studies by Namias (1972) and Davis (1976) explored the predictability aspect of these large-scale patterns of variability in the

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Junye Chen, Anthony D. Del Genio, Barbara E. Carlson, and Michael G. Bosilovich

1. Introduction In addition to the interannual El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, strong climate variability on decadal and interdecadal time scales also exists in the Pacific basin. In this study, we refer to this longer-term climate variability as the Pacific pan-decadal variability (PDV); it has also been referred to as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO), ENSO-like interdecadal variability, or Pacific interdecadal variability. PDV is

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Shang-Ping Xie, Lixiao Xu, Qinyu Liu, and Fumiaki Kobashi

. On the weather time scale, positive wind curls are associated with low pressure systems of a subsynoptic scale in space, energized by surface baroclinity and latent heat release along the SST front. The SST front also anchors a meridional maximum in column-integrated water vapor, indicating a deep structure of the atmospheric response. Thus, mode water ventilation has a climatic effect in the interior subtropical gyre along the STCC. The Kuroshio Extension displays large decadal variability

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Daling Li Yi, Bolan Gan, Lixin Wu, and Arthur J. Miller

1. Introduction Low-frequency variability of the Pacific climate system has been received much attention since the 1990s, owing to its strong influence on both regional and global climate (e.g., Latif and Barnett 1996 ; Biondi et al. 2001 ; Schneider et al. 2002 ). Understanding the dynamics of North Pacific decadal variability is vital for improving large-scale and regional climate predictability, as well as for being able to discern its potential global influence. Previous studies have

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Bunmei Taguchi, Niklas Schneider, Masami Nonaka, and Hideharu Sasaki

Schneider (2014 , hereinafter TS14) analyzed mechanisms for generation and propagation of decadal-scale OHC anomalies in a long-term climate model simulation. In their model, large OHC variability in the North Pacific is confined along the subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ) where mean northward decrease of temperature and salinity density compensates and forms large gradients of mean spiciness (e.g., Veronis 1972 ; Schneider 2000 ). The simulated frontal zone exhibits internally generated decadal

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Zane Martin, Adam Sobel, Amy Butler, and Shuguang Wang

. 2019 ). c. QBO decadal temperature anomalies In this section we look at whether QBO temperature anomalies show longer-term trends or variability independent of season. We take two approaches to quantifying these longer-term changes: from the 40-yr span of data from 1979 to 2019 we first divide the record in half and separately examine the periods 1979–99 and 1999–2019. The year 1999 was chosen so that the statistics are roughly the same in each period; changing the precise year does not change the

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