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Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli and Rosalia Santoleri

SST measurements to define bins on which different GEM fields can be estimated ( Mitchell et al. 2004 ). The number of DOFs absorbed by the GEM techniques is 1 (given by the tension applied to the curve) plus the number of nodes used in the smoothing. The latter is generally chosen to be the maximum between a fraction of the total number of profiles in the learning dataset and a minimum of 3. As a consequence, the DOFs absorbed by a basic GEM are generally higher than 4. If different bins are

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Andrew E. Mercer, Alexandria D. Grimes, and Kimberly M. Wood

learning method could benefit from considering multiple processes simultaneously as opposed to the best-separating field presented here (a task outside of the scope of this project). Typically, the best-separating GFSA fields were consistent among multiple RI definitions, revealing humidity across a deep vertical layer, low-level instability, and midlevel vorticity as potentially important separating fields for RI/non-RI environments. Ultimately, the improved separability offered by the presented

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Paul J. Croft and Juyoung Ha

happened. This was truly one of the examples of which students took the leadership in designing and developing the course and became professionally competent through immersion. It also marked their increasing comprehension of what it means to be a scientist rather than simply doing science. This unique hands-on educational experience prepared and motivated students to be leaders of the project and their learning because they were now committed to strive toward deeper understanding and completion of the

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Dawn Kopacz, Lindsay C. Maudlin, Wendilyn J. Flynn, Zachary J. Handlos, Adam Hirsch, and Swarndeep Gill

for educators. Despite the interest in ASER activities, many of the instructor respondents perceive at least a moderate level of risk to their promotion and/or tenure potential if they decide to engage in ASER activities through collaborations on teaching and learning research projects and presentations at discipline-based conferences. The lack of interest in becoming more deeply involved in the ASER community may be a result of a perceived lack of value placed on ASER by their institutions. This

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S. Caires and A. Sterl

necessity of having a learning dataset (TOPEX measurements) in all the periods with different error characteristics and the prerequisite knowledge of the periods with a given type of error characteristics. There were some caveats in the ERA-40 data that remain in the C-ERA-40 dataset. The ERA-40 model does not account for shallow-water effects and therefore the data are only valid in deep-water regions. Due to resolution, tropical cyclones are not resolved by the ERA-40 system. Therefore, the data

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Wiebke Schubotz, Daniel Klocke, Ulrich Löhnert, Andreas Macke, Bjorn Stevens, and Allison Wing

observational data are used in synergy with modeling efforts. Another hot topic was machine learning, as it came up in several presentations at UCP2019. These showed the potential to learn parameterizations by training deep neural networks and the use of artificial intelligence to probe inputs and outputs of existing parameterizations. They also highlighted how computationally expensive parts of a model can be replaced by faster algorithms. Another example of how machine learning approaches can be leveraged

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Robin L. Tanamachi, Daniel T. Dawson II, and Loran Carleton Parker

learning of atmospheric science, we created an elective “severe storms field work” course within Purdue EAPS. Learning, in this context, is defined as, “the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience” ( Kolb 1984 ). The rationale for the creation of this course was well expressed by King (1993) : “When students are engaged in actively processing information by reconstructing that information in such new and personally meaningful ways, they are far more likely to

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Andrew M. Dzambo, Margaret Mooney, Zachary J. Handlos, Scott Lindstrom, Yun Hang, and Steve A. Ackerman

other while testing their own knowledge. Worksheet assignments push students to deeper learning, and quizzes ensure they complete and comprehend assigned readings. For the last week, students upload an “elevator speech” video explaining climate change to a stranger in less than 2 minutes. A final project research paper supports good writing skills while combining course topics in a real-world scenario. The AOS 102 course will continue to evolve as new scientific research becomes available, and will

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Xinhua Liu, Kanghui Zhou, Yu Lan, Xu Mao, and Robert J. Trapp

elsewhere around the world, the role of human forecasters has been challenged in favor of applications of artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning approaches. How to maintain the role of the forecaster in future forecasting has been discussed ( Stuart et al. 2006 , 2007 ) and will likely evolve the role of the conceptual model in the forecasting process. Convection-allowing model (CAM) usage at the National Meteorological Center of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) began in 2014. 1

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Xinhua Liu, Kanghui Zhou, Yu Lan, Xu Mao, and Robert J. Trapp

elsewhere around the world, the role of human forecasters has been challenged in favor of applications of artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning approaches. How to maintain the role of the forecaster in future forecasting has been discussed ( Stuart et al. 2006 , 2007 ) and will likely evolve the role of the conceptual model in the forecasting process. Convection-allowing model (CAM) usage at the National Meteorological Center of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) began in 2014. 1

Open access