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Anne Springer, Jürgen Kusche, Kerstin Hartung, Christan Ohlwein, and Laurent Longuevergne

is the closure of the water budget at river basin scale, in order to assess the realism of the representation of the P and E fluxes in NWP models. In particular, high-resolution output fields from the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling, German version (COSMO-DE) and European version (COSMO-EU), which are analysis runs of the nonhydrostatic regional atmospheric COSMO model developed by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), are evaluated and compared to global models and observation

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Yann Friocourt, Bruno Blanke, Sybren Drijfhout, and Sabrina Speich

1. Introduction Although the circulation in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean is weak and largely dominated by mesoscale fluctuations, observations report the existence of a baroclinic system of slope currents along the west European margin with velocities of up to 20 cm s −1 (e.g., Daniault et al. 1994 ; Huthnance et al. 2002 ; Pingree and Le Cann 1989 ; Pingree et al. 1999 ). In a companion paper, Friocourt et al. (2008 , hereafter Part I ) investigated the dynamics of the steady

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Pierre Valty, Olivier de Viron, Isabelle Panet, and Xavier Collilieux

1. Introduction Monitoring and modeling Earth’s water cycle is a key scientific issue. On land, knowing how water resources evolve and how they respond and interact with the climate variations has a strong societal impact in the context of global change. In particular, the knowledge of the interannual dynamics of water mass redistributions at the regional scale is mandatory to estimate the effects of the global change on the water cycle. At this time scale, in Europe, the zonal atmospheric

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Lukas Gudmundsson, Lena M. Tallaksen, Kerstin Stahl, Douglas B. Clark, Egon Dumont, Stefan Hagemann, Nathalie Bertrand, Dieter Gerten, Jens Heinke, Naota Hanasaki, Frank Voss, and Sujan Koirala

Europe based on daily data. They concluded that the model captured average annual low and high flows reasonably well, but had a tendency to overestimate the return periods of extreme events. Similarly, Hirabayashi et al. (2008) compared the estimated return periods of seven disastrous floods around the globe to the results from a global offline simulation with daily resolution and concluded that the return period of the simulated events compared reasonably well to the observed values. However

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E. Rousi, F. Selten, S. Rahmstorf, and D. Coumou

atmospheric and oceanic variability that plays an important role in shaping weather and climate over Europe ( Woollings 2010 ). Considerable changes have been documented during the last decades across the North Atlantic climate system, including in the atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere ( Robson et al. 2018 ). Particularly for the period 2005–16, Robson et al. (2018) document an increase in the speed of the North Atlantic jet stream in winter and a southward shift of its location in summer, associated

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K. Goubanova, L. Li, P. Yiou, and F. Codron

general point of view, this hypothesis can only be examined by using dynamical models. Moreover, such a test has to involve the intermediate step of examining the capability of the climate model to reproduce the observed link between large and local scales. In this paper, we consider the winter daily mean temperature over central Europe as the local variable. This choice provides a well-established relation between variations of a local variable (near-surface temperature) and of the large

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Claudio Saffioti, Erich M. Fischer, and Reto Knutti

; Lucarini et al. 2007 ). Similarly, daily to interannual temperature variability in Europe has been shown to differ substantially between simulations ( Kjellström et al. 2007 ; Fischer and Schär 2009 ; Jacob et al. 2007 ). Several previous studies highlighted the strong influence of atmospheric circulation on temperature and precipitation changes in model simulations ( Deser et al. 2014 ; Frankcombe et al. 2015 ) and in observations ( Hurrell 1996 ; Thompson et al. 2009 ; Smoliak et al. 2015

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Armin Aulinger, Volker Matthias, and Markus Quante

(atmosphere, soil, water, biota) in conjunction with a high bioaccumulative potential and lifelong exposure of individuals. This has been confirmed in various studies in which PAHs and other POPs were measured in fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and humans ( Baussant et al. 2001 ; MacDonald et al. 2000 ). In conclusion, several international conventions were initiated to reduce or phase out the most hazardous of these substances; examples include the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN

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Djordje Romanic, Junayed Chowdhury, Jubayer Chowdhury, and Horia Hangan

thunderstorms, while the majority of European data came from less organized thunderstorms. The objectively analyzed and segmented thunderstorm velocity records can be of importance in wind energy and wind engineering ( Solari 2016 ). For example, an analysis of structural responses to transient winds is typically carried out via the thunderstorm response spectrum technique ( Solari 2016 ), whereas the structural responses to ABL winds are analyzed through the gust response factor technique (e.g., Davenport

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Djordje Romanic, Junayed Chowdhury, Jubayer Chowdhury, and Horia Hangan

thunderstorms, while the majority of European data came from less organized thunderstorms. The objectively analyzed and segmented thunderstorm velocity records can be of importance in wind energy and wind engineering ( Solari 2016 ). For example, an analysis of structural responses to transient winds is typically carried out via the thunderstorm response spectrum technique ( Solari 2016 ), whereas the structural responses to ABL winds are analyzed through the gust response factor technique (e.g., Davenport

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