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Carol S. Hsu, W. Timothy Liu, and Morton G. Wurtele

) , Johnson (1984) , Gallus and Johnson (1990) , and Yanai et al. (1992) . Liu (1993) demonstrated the potential of estimating the integrated moisture transport and, therefore, the hydrologic forcing on the ocean by using a combination of spaceborne microwave scatterometer and radiometer data. Since most of the moisture in the atmosphere is concentrated in the lower levels, an accurate estimate of boundary moisture convergence will permit a reasonable estimate of precipitation ( Lord 1982 ). Hayashi

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Sen Chiao, Yuh-Lang Lin, and Michael L. Kaplan

this time. The southerly flow near the foothills of the Alps as well as the Lago Maggiore area was deflected to the west. As mentioned earlier, this westward turning was caused by the mountain blocking as determined from sensitivity simulations to be presented later. Also, the 850-hPa wind field ( Fig. 7a ) differed from that at the surface level ( Fig. 6b ) due to the boundary layer forcing. More discussion of this phenomenon in a sensitivity experiment with no boundary layer friction is presented

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Xiaoming Sun and Ana P. Barros

, landfall, and inner-core structure agreed well with a variety of observations, including changes in surface winds and pressure near the storm center. In this study, we focus on the evolution of the spatial and temporal organization of rainfall during Tropical Storm Ivan (2004) in the southern Appalachians. The specific objective is to investigate the impact of alternative forcing 1 datasets and physical parameterizations of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3.1 (ARW

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

1. Introduction Mountain waves under transient tropospheric forcing conditions were frequently observed during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) in austral winter 2014 ( Fritts et al. 2016 ). These events occurred episodically and were associated with migratory low pressure systems impinging the South Island (SI) of New Zealand (NZ; Gisinger et al. 2017 ). During these events, the conditions for wave excitation and propagation varied temporally. Continuous ground

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Patrick S. Skinner, Christopher C. Weiss, Louis J. Wicker, Corey K. Potvin, and David C. Dowell

et al. 2012 ) or thermodynamic ( Lee et al. 2012 ) characteristics than either prior surges or the broadscale RFD have been found to precede tornado dissipation. Despite the importance of internal RFD momentum surges to tornado genesis, maintenance, and decay, comparatively little is known about their origins and physical processes responsible for their development. Efforts to diagnose air parcel source regions and four-dimensional forcing of RFD surges are complicated by limited temporal and

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Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, and Susan Pohle

development of extratropical cyclones. Part II: Diagnostic analysis and conceptual model. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 119 , 518 – 550 . Hirschberg , P. A. , and J. M. Fritsch , 1993 : On understanding height tendencies. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 121 , 2646 – 2661 . Knippertz , P. , and A. H. Fink , 2008 : Dry-season precipitation in tropical West Africa and its relation to forcing from the extratropics. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 136 , 3579 – 3596 . Kong , K-Y. , 2006 : Understanding the genesis of Hurricane

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I. R. TANNEHILL

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW Editor, EDGAR W. WOOLARD CLOSED OCT. 3, 1940 ISSUED NOVEMBER 15, 1940 AUGUST 1940 VOL. 68, No. 8 W. B. No. 1301 WIND FORCE AND EXCEPTIONAL VISIBILITY AT SEA By I. R. TANNEHILL \[Weather Bureau, Washington, October 19391 Visibility depends upon numerous factors, including many properties of the object used as a visibility mark, and variable conditions of light and atmosphere.' Studie.s of visibility have been made on land, and to some extent on seacoasts, but little has

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R. A. HARRIS

Washington, D. C.-f Morning and night forecasts made at district center.SPECIAL BRTIOLES, NOTES, AND EXTRAOTS.DEFLECTING FORCE DUE TO THH EIARTH'S ROTATION.In connection with Mr. Okada's recent paper' it may be ofinterest to show how the deflecting force can be obtained byaid of the usual two-dimensional expressions for the accelera-tion resolved along and perpendicular to the radius vector.If a material point move in any plane curve, and if p and c/.denote its polar coordinates, then the acceleration

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Guoxiong Wu and Yongsheng Zhang

Tibetan Plateau. It has long been puzzled why the monsoon onset occurs earlier in the SCS region than over the Indian region, and how this East Asian monsoon onset is linked to the forcing of the Plateau. Chang and Chen (1995) briefly reviewed several hypotheses that had been proposed to explain the SCS monsoon onset consideringthe plateau forcing, and suggested that the SCS monsoon onset is triggered by the approach of a midlatitude trough–front system. Since in late spring and early summer

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~iniinishes exactly i n proport,inn as t,he pressnrtdeparts therefrom ; it has, therefore, two-thirds of it.s viilucwhen the pressure is SO inches a n d i t has om-thirtieth ninrtthan it.s full valn6 when t.he pressare is 31 inches. As coil-cerns altitude, the correction increases algeliraically lint slowlywith altit,ude. If the force of gravity were deterniiiied at, everystation, as i t easily could he, a somewhat more correct value ofthe infltience of thiR source of error ~vould lw known.3. The isohars

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