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Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli and William R. Holland

"correct" values ofthe above parameters cannot be inferred by this simple scanning due to the non-uniqueness of the solution.1. Introduction Over the course of the next decade a number of newobservational techniques, based upon the availabilityof satellites (altimetry, scatterometry) and the development of new techniques for observing the interiorof the ocean (such as tomography) will begin to givethe oceanographer a synoptic, "real time" picture ofthe oceanic circulation and how it changes with

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Femke C. Vossepoel and David W. Behringer

1. Introduction Assimilation of temperature observations in models of the tropical Pacific Ocean has led to improved simulation and forecasting of El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (e.g., Chen et al. 1995 ; Ji et al. 1998 ; Kleeman et al. 1995 ; Stockdale et al. 1998 ). Subsurface temperature observations are readily available through the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere–Tropical Ocean–Atmosphere (TOGA–TAO) program and Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS), and provide a good

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Christopher J. Zappa, Michael L. Banner, Russel P. Morison, and Sophia E. Brumer

breaking wave framework Recent developments in the spectral characterization of breaking wave properties ( Phillips 1985 , hereinafter P85 ) in terms of the spectral density of breaking crest length per unit area Λ( k ) [or Λ( c )], and associated spectral breaking strength b ( k ) [or b ( c )], where k is wavenumber and c is phase speed, have added a new theoretical and observational framework that potentially adds reliable breaking wave information to routine wave forecasts (e.g., Banner and

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Jorge Vazquez-Cuervo, Jordi Font, and Juan J. Martinez-Benjamin

1992 and December 1993, were created from the ERSI data with high correlationbetween sea surface temperature and residual sea level in the eastern part of the Alboran Sea. The spatiallycoherent signal was then extracted using the technique of complex empirical orthogonai analysis with the firstthree modes statistically significant. The variability of the first complex empirical orthogonal function mode appears to be associated with thein-omlng jet through the straits of Gibraltar with three time

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Andrew M. Moore

eliminating the gravity wave components of initialization shock. In the tropics however, the frequencygap between the inertia-gravity waves and Rossbywaves is fairly small, and in addition, the frequencygap is spanned by Yanai waves and equatorial Kelvinwaves. In the tropics therefore, normal mode initialization techniques are not quite so useful for suppression initialization shock and can quite often degradethe model forecast (Tribbia 1979; Daley 1981; Rasch1985a,b). Until recently, data assimilation

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Edward C. Monahan and David K. Woolf

abasis for suggesting that t~ is in fact larger than X. Notingthat A^ is typically much smaller than AB (Bondur andSharkov 1982), and that the spatial resolution of thevideo-based whitecap analysis technique is somewhatless than the resolution of the film-based procedure, itcan be concluded that while each approach may welldetect 'the bulk of the sea surface area brighter than therespective technique's threshold albedo, the fraction ofthe Stage A whitecaps missed in the video analysis isgreater than

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Peter A. E. M. Janssen

. 2. On the kinetic energy balance and the ID method In certain respects the inertial dissipation technique may be regarded as an elegant method because it is relatively easily implemented on a ship and the stress estimates are thought to suffer less from flow distortion compared to the eddy-correlation estimates of stress. However, it was pointed out in J99 that the ID method also has a number of drawbacks because of the number of assumptions involved. For example, an empirical imbalance term is

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Xu Zhang, Youyu Lu, and Keith R. Thompson

mechanisms of these various waves are different. Decomposing the observed variations into components related to each wave type can be helpful in terms of understanding the underlying dynamics and, on a more practical note, developing a forecasting capability. Compared with the observed variations in isothermal depth, the intraseasonal variation of sea level is generally weak. On the other hand, the sea level variations observed by satellite altimeters have much higher spatial resolution than the in situ

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Russ E. Davis

it. Because of the complexity ofpossible interactions and the large quantities of datarequired to examine them, most studies have concentrated on selected geographical regions and timeperiods. From such studies has grown the belief thatavailable data disclose definite connections betweenocean and atmosphere on climatic time scales and thehope that understanding these connections can lead toan improved ability to forecast atmospheric climate.A persuasive argument toward this point of view isgiven

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James A. Carton, Gennady Chepurin, and Xianhe Cao

-mass production are still not clear. Adjoint or streamline assimilation techniques together with isopycnal coordinate forecast models may prove helpful. The inability of the forecast model to produce realistic mixed layer salinity. Our lack of knowledge of historical surface salinity limits any estimate of interannual fluctuations of salinity in the mixed layer and contributes to the problems associated with insufficient thermocline water-mass formation. Improvements in estimate of historical rainfall may

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