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Duick T. Young, Lee Chapman, Catherine L. Muller, Xiao-Ming Cai, and C. S. B. Grimmond

1. Introduction Near-surface air temperature is of interest for a wide range of applications, such as frost protection in agriculture ( Beckwith et al. 2004 ) or within urban areas, where the well-documented urban heat island (UHI) effect (e.g., Stewart and Oke 2012 ) has implications for the health and well-being of residents. However, there is a paucity of routine observations due to a multitude of factors, including the cost of instrumentation, security concerns, and siting requirements

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Francisco Salamanca, Alberto Martilli, Mukul Tewari, and Fei Chen

Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ( Chen et al. 2011 ) to improve its skills in urban areas and to be able to assess environmental problems such as the urban heat island (UHI) and urban air pollution. In this context, in the first part of this article, results obtained with WRF with four different urban canopy parameterizations over the city of Houston, Texas, (see Table 1 ) are presented. Comparisons against measurements of surface air temperature and wind speed are also shown. The first urban

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Liang Wang and Dan Li

the well-known urban heat island (UHI) effects ( Arnfield 2003 ; Oke 1982 ). The UHI effects have important impacts on the atmospheric boundary layer flow, the dispersion of pollutants, the energy and water consumption in cities, and so on ( Han et al. 2014 ; Hidalgo et al. 2010 ; Miao et al. 2009 ; Pal et al. 2012 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ). The UHI intensity, which characterizes the magnitude of the UHI effect, is typically defined as the temperature difference between the urban and the

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Anna A. Scott, Ben Zaitchik, Darryn W. Waugh, and Katie O’Meara

1. Introduction Extreme temperature is now the deadliest form of climate hazard worldwide ( WMO 2014 ), and heat waves—extended periods of elevated heat and humidity—are a growing problem in most of the United States ( IPCC 2013 ). The health impacts of heat waves are potentially exacerbated by growing urban populations as well as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, a land–atmosphere interaction that causes cities to be several degrees hotter than rural areas. The effect is most pronounced at

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B. D. Katsoulis and G. A. Theoharatos

1296 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE AND APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME24Indications of the Urban Heat Island in Athens, Greece B. D. KATSOULISMeteorological Institute, National Observatory of Athens. 11810 Greece G. A. THEOHARATOSDepartment of Meteorology, University of Athens, Greece(Manuscript received 24 September 1984, in final form 3 May 1985) The analysis of air temperature data for a period of 22 years in th~ meteorological

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Ping Yang, Guoyu Ren, and Wei Hou

1. Introduction Because of human activity, land usage and vegetation cover in urban areas have fundamentally changed ( Landsberg 1981 ; Oke 1982 ; Morris et al. 2001 ). More and more studies have indicated that energy balances and most climatic elements of urban areas are significantly different from their nearby suburbs ( Oke 1988 ; Ren et al. 2007 ; Han and Baik 2008 ; Ren and Zhou 2014 ; Wang 2014 ; Yang and Wang 2015 ). The concept of an urban heat island (UHI), which is one of the

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Fred M. Vukovich, J. W. Dunn III, and Bobby W. Crissman

VOL. 15, NO. 5 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY MAY 1976A Theoretical Study of the St. Louis Heat Island:The Wind and Temperature DistributionFRED M. VUKOVrCa, J. W. I)UNN III AND BOBBY W. CRISSMANResearch Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, N. C. 27709(Manuscript received 21 July 1975, in revised form 26 January 1976)ABSTRACT A three-dimensional primitive equation model was used to study the St. Louis heat

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Kevin P. Gallo and Timothy W. Owen

of observation, changes in instruments, movement of weather stations, and urbanization. The population-based urban adjustments to the dataset are based on the analysis of Karl et al. (1988) . In development of these adjustments, Karl et al. (1988) detected the influence of urbanization on long-term temperature records [the urban heat island (UHI) bias] for cities with populations less than 10 000. No routine adjustments are currently made to global climatological datasets. The relationship

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Yeon-Hee Kim and Jong-Jin Baik

the urban–rural differences, the most notable and well documented is the increase in air temperature in urban areas, called the urban heat island. Many factors influence urban heat island intensity, including local and synoptic weather, season, time of day, size of the city and its geographical location, urban morphology, and anthropogenic heat. It is well known that the urban heat island intensity is strong on clear and windless nights and exhibits diurnal and seasonal variations (e.g., Yague et

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Cátia C. Azevedo, Carolina M. L. Camargo, José Alves, and Rui M. A. Caldeira

wind stress curl, the thermal forcing can also impact the local ocean circulation. Heat transfer is high, particularly in areas with weak surface winds and thus weaker mixing as in the lee of islands (e.g., Yang et al. 2008 ). However, the thermodynamic effects of wakes are poorly discussed in the scientific literature. Most studies focus on the (dominant) transfer of momentum from the atmospheric to the ocean surface (e.g., Dong and McWilliams 2007 ; Couvelard et al. 2012 ), often disregarding

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