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P. Grady Dixon and Thomas L. Mote

urban heat island (UHI) may develop, causing the city to remain consistently warmer than its surroundings. This phenomenon is created by changes in the natural environment caused by urban development and deforestation. Several studies have shown significant UHIs in major cities across the globe (e.g., Bornstein 1968 ; Oke 1973 ; Draxler 1986 ; Balling and Cerveny 1987 ; Lo et al. 1997 ; Bornstein and Lin 2000 ; Morris et al. 2001 ). In addition, much research has been done to determine how

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Serena Falasca, Franco Catalano, and Monica Moroni

mainly depends on the surface energy balance (SEB), which is influenced by alterations to the land characteristics due to human activities; the result of such direct and indirect modifications is urban warming ( Hinkel et al. 2003 ), or urban heat island (UHI), and the associated circulation ( Catalano et al. 2012a ; Ryu et al. 2013 ). There are cases where the latent heat flux in urban areas is higher than in rural areas (e.g., the city of Phoenix, built in a desert area), and thus the temperature

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Angela M. Rendón, Juan F. Salazar, Carlos A. Palacio, Volkmar Wirth, and Björn Brötz

1. Introduction Many cities located in valleys with limited ventilation experience serious air pollution problems of concern for public health ( Edgerton et al. 1999 ; Romero et al. 1999 ; Panday and Prinn 2009 ). The transport of pollutants out of an urban valley atmosphere can be limited not only by orographic barriers, but also by urban heat island–induced circulations ( Haeger-Eugensson and Holmer 1999 ; Savijärvi and Liya 2001 ) and/or the presence of temperature inversions near the

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Angela M. Rendón, Juan F. Salazar, Carlos A. Palacio, and Volkmar Wirth

1. Introduction Urban valleys can experience serious air pollution problems as a combined result of their limited ventilation and the high emission of pollutants from the urban areas (e.g., Rutllant and Garreaud 1995 ; Malek et al. 2006 ; Chu et al. 2008 ). In such complex terrains, the venting of pollution out of the valley is limited by the topography and can be further restricted by local circulations ( Gohm et al. 2009 ), and particularly by urban heat island–induced circulations

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Giouli Mihalakakou, Helena A. Flocas, Manthaios Santamouris, and Costas G. Helmis

Introduction The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is mainly caused by the differences in the thermal structure between urban and rural environments that are associated with thermal properties of urban materials, urban geometry, air pollution, and the anthropogenic heat released by urban activities ( Park 1986 ). The phenomenon may occur during day or nighttime periods, and its spatial and temporal pattern is strongly controlled by the unique characteristics of each urban area ( Lyall 1977

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Julie A. Winkler, Richard H. Skaggs, and Donald G. Baker

NOVEMBER 1981WINKLER, SKAGGS AND BAKER1295Effect of Temperature Adjustments on the Minneapolis-St. Paul Urban Heat Island1JuLIE A. WINKLER2 AND RICHARD H. SKAGGSDepartment of Geography, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455DONALD G. BAKERDepartment of Soil Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55101(Manuscript received 12 May 1980, in final form 20 July 1981)ABSTRACTIn order to better estimate urban influence on local climate, mean temperature series were correctedfor biases and

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John F. Clarke and James T. Peterson

FEBnU^aX'1973 JOHN F. CLARKE AND jAMES T. PETERSON i95An Empirical Model Using Eigenvectors to Calculate the Temporal and Spatial Variations of the St. Louis Heat Island JOHN F. C~^RKE~ ^ND J.aX~ES T. PF..TERSONtEnvironmental Protection Agency, National Environmental Research Center, Research Triangle Park, N. C. 27711(Manuscript received 3 January 1972, in revised form 5 September 1972)ABSTRACT

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Timothy W. Hawkins, Anthony J. Brazel, William L. Stefanov, Wendy Bigler, and Erinanne M. Saffell

Introduction Urban heat island studies form the core of research in the field of urban climatology ( Oke 1988 ). The heat island refers to warmer nighttime temperatures occurring in the core of the built environment when compared with the surrounding rural environment. It is not possible to perform the ideal experiment that would capture the urban effect (i.e., measure without the city and then immediately measure with the city at any stage of its growth; Lowry 1977 ). Thus, several common

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Jingjing Dou, Yingchun Wang, Robert Bornstein, and Shiguang Miao

surrounding rural areas), depending on which urban modifications dominate at a given moment. a. Urban climate Structural and land-cover differences between urban and rural areas, as well as anthropogenic heat sources and aerosol layers, can produce urban 2-m temperatures warmer than those over surrounding rural regions (e.g., Bornstein 1968 ; Stewart and Oke 2012 ). This difference between urban and rural stations was first observed by Howard (1833) in London and is referred to as an urban heat island

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A. M. E. Winguth and B. Kelp

1. Introduction Urban areas are generally warmer than rural locations ( Howard 1833 ), a phenomenon known as the urban heat island effect (UHI; Oke 1973 ). The urban heat island is commonly estimated by the difference in temperature measurements between stations in urbanized areas and rural areas (e.g., Chandler 1961 , 1965 ; Oke 1973 , 1982 , 1987 ). Within this context, rural areas are defined as landscapes that are predominantly natural and not covered with buildings, parking areas

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