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Hannah R. Torres, Kamal A. Alsharif, and Graham A. Tobin

incentives from insurance companies to flood-proof or otherwise retrofit one’s home to reduce risk. Modifications that could reduce insurance rates were perceived as too costly to be worth it. When participants were asked what aspects of climate change and sea level rise most concerned them, some expressed general concerns, like the disappearance of low-lying island nations and the increased rate at which the Greenland ice sheet is melting. However, most concerns were framed on a personal scale and these

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Saeideh Maleki, Saeid Soltani Koupaei, Alireza Soffianian, Sassan Saatchi, Saeid Pourmanafi, and Vahid Rahdari

, 893 – 903 , . 10.1016/j.rse.2009.01.007 Chen , X. , H. Zhao , P. Li , and Z. Yin , 2006 : Remote sensing image-based analysis of the relationship between urban heat island and land use/cover changes . Remote Sens. Environ. , 104 , 133 – 146 , . 10.1016/j.rse.2005.11.016 Dahmardeh , M. , M. Dahmardeh , S. Yazdani , and E. Piri , 2009 : The socio-economic effects of Hamoon Lake in Sistan region of

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Frauke Hoss and Paul Fischbeck

survey among farmers by to Hu et al. (2006) and Artikov et al. (2006) . Furthermore, questions to assess numeracy on the subjective numeracy scale as constructed by Fagerlin et al. (2007) were added to the survey. The complete questionnaire is available in the online supplemental material ( section A ). To account for the diversity of natural hazards in a large country like the United States, six hazards were included in the study: flash flooding, river flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, heat

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Megan L. White and J. Anthony Stallins

.1002/2016GL070375 Zhang , D.-L. , Y.-X. Shou , R. R. Dickerson , and F. Chen , 2011 : Impact of upstream urbanization on the urban heat island effects along the Washington–Baltimore corridor . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 50 , 2012 – 2029 , doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-10-05008.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-10-05008.1

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Lindsay Matthews, Jean Andrey, and Ian Picketts

delay road maintenance work because of health and safety concerns ( Venner and Zamurs 2012 ). Adaptations such as different pavement binders can be used to improve the resiliency and reduce maintenance costs for road surface infrastructure. A recent study by Fletcher et al. (2016) found that for pavement to withstand projected temperature increases into the 2050s, more heat-resistant pavement binders will need to be used across much of Canada. Drought conditions also affect transportation, both

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Vikram S. Negi, Shinny Thakur, Rupesh Dhyani, Indra D. Bhatt, and Ranbeer S. Rawal

cover area (68%) and changes in the time of snowfall (>80%); this influences water discharge and vegetation composition in the alpine areas. Extreme heat and scorching in summer season were reported by many respondents. Shepherds were especially keen observer of climate change and its impacts. They reported changes in the composition of vegetation in alpine meadows. The respondents of high-altitude villages Kuti and Gunji reported a shift in frequency of precipitation from snowfall to rainfall. Key

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Iván J. Ramírez, Sue C. Grady, and Michael H. Glantz

heat content to represent El Niño, the authors showed that the distribution of index cases of cholera followed a pattern along the west coast of South America, similar to the oceanic parameters. Coincidently, this pattern also resembled locations where cholera was first identified in 1990/91, according to Seas et al. (2000) . This was the first study to demonstrate how vibrios and their reservoirs may have traveled via ocean waves and upon arrival (i.e., against the continental boundary) dispersed

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Scott Bremer, Anne Blanchard, Nabir Mamnun, Mathew Stiller-Reeve, Md. Mahfujul Haque, and Endre Tvinnereim

experience and narrative inquiry . Educ. Res. , 19 , 2 – 14 , doi: 10.3102/0013189X019005002 . 10.3102/0013189X019005002 Corburn , J. , 2009 : Cities, climate change and urban heat island mitigation: Localising global environmental science . Urban Stud. , 46 , 413 – 427 , doi: 10.1177/0042098008099361 . 10.1177/0042098008099361 Czarniawska , B. , 2004 : Narratives in Social Science Research . SAGE, 157 pp. 10.4135/9781849209502 Daniels , S. , and G. H. Endfield , 2009 : Narratives of

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Barbara Millet, Andrew P. Carter, Kenneth Broad, Alberto Cairo, Scotney D. Evans, and Sharanya J. Majumdar

. (left) The original image of a National Hurricane forecast graphic for Hurricane Irma. (right) The same image with a visual saliency heat map overlaid; the darker red parts of the heat map predict higher visual saliency, or the tendency of the human eye to be attracted to that part of the image. It is clear that how forecast graphics are presented is important to adequately informing the public of hurricane threat ( Sherman-Morris 2005 ). The ways that people misinterpret the graphic suggest a

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Sally Potter, Sara Harrison, and Peter Kreft

information. This also allows for warnings about cascading hazards and impacts, such as flooding leading to traffic congestion, which obstructs emergency services responses, leading to citywide impacts (Gov. Int. A). The need to take into account antecedent conditions was also identified in the development of the French Heat Health Index ( Pascal et al. 2006 ). Pascal et al. identified that the characteristics of the preceding summer, and the vulnerability of the population, should be considered when

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