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A. Schiller, J. S. Godfrey, P. C. McIntosh, G. Meyers, and S. E. Wijffels

, respectively. b. Surface flux formulations Interannually varying estimates of the various fluxes for the period 1985–90 have been averaged to create the seasonal forcing climatologies for this paper (the only period for which satellite-based shortwave radiation estimates were available). 1) Momentum fluxes The monthly mean Florida State University (FSU)“pseudostresses” for 1985–90 for the Indian and Pacific Oceans were used ( Legler et al. 1989 ; Stricherz et al. 1992 ) with a constant bulk transfer

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Charles W. Morgan and Joseph M. Bishop

~/ ~ ~ / ~ ~TA 8 ? ~ ~;~~,..., ~ / ~,.~,,o.,o,,,,o~,,,, //-~5~1-,, "- /( ,o,.; ,ao,., ~ ~s to~ / /j~/~,,,,, ~ 2~~' 22 74~ 73~ 72~ 71* FIo. 1. Dyn~c topography ~efercnced to [000 m (dyn~c metem). 70-W-~ 41~N 40- -- t9- -58-N47370-Wof shelf water is mixing with the slope water. Suchtongues were commonly observed on infrared satelliteimages and airborne radiation

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M. F. Lavín, R. Durazo, E. Palacios, M. L. Argote, and L. Carrillo

areas at the head of the gulf ( Lavín et al. 1995 ). More than twenty years ago, a descriptive model of the circulation in the NGC was proposed by Lepley et al. (1975) , based on visible, infrared, and multispectral photographs taken by GEMINI, APOLLO, and SKYLAB astronauts, and by ERS satellite: it consisted of a seasonally reversing gyre, cyclonic in summer and anticyclonic in winter. This pattern, suggested originally by the distribution of suspended sediments as seen in the photographs can

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C. E. Coulman

over the sea. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 104, 653-676.Pond, S., Fissel, D. B., and Paulson, C. A., 1974: Note on bulk aerodynamic coefficients for sensible heat and moisture fluxes. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 6, 333-339.Saunders, P. M., 1967: Aerial measurement of sea surface temperature in the infrared. J. Geophys. Res., 72, 4109 4117. , 1970: Corrections for airborne radiation thermometry. J. Geophys. Res., 75, 7596-7601.Telford, J. W., and Warner, J., 1962: On measurement from an

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Weimin Wang and Michael J. McPhaden

° × 1° boxes over the global oceans from 1945 to 1993. We use the da Silva et al. “fine-tuned” product, which is constrained by a linear inverse calculation in such a way that the net surface heat flux is zero integrated over the globe, and that the zonally integrated meridional freshwater transport is 0.06 Sv (Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) at 65°S. 4) Other datasets Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data are obtained from NOAA’s polar-orbiting satellites as radiance measurements in an infrared frequency

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Yangxing Zheng, George N. Kiladis, Toshiaki Shinoda, E. Joseph Metzger, Harley E. Hurlburt, Jialin Lin, and Benjamin S. Giese

detection problem, because clouds are opaque to infrared radiation and can effectively mask radiation from the ocean surface. Carton et al. (2000a , b) used a bias-corrected model error covariance in an attempt to reduce such error. The near-surface salinity observation set averages more than 10 5 observations per year since 1960 ( Bingham et al. 2002 ). Nearly continuous sea level information is available from a succession of altimeter satellites beginning in 1991. Although the coverage of

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Peter O. Zavialov, Renato D. Ghisolfi, and Carlos A. E. Garcia

heat and the effective infrared radiation from the sea surface, using the standard methods. They also computed the solar irradiance at the sea surface, using available data for clear-sky insolation over Brazil and the adjacent ocean, tabulated by Tubelis and Nascimento (1978) and corrected for seasonal cloudiness. The sum of insolation and latent, sensible, and net longwave radiational heat losses at surface determined total flux of heat crossing the sea surface, hereafter referred to as the net

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Johan Nilsson

infrared radiation. The length scale, which can be called the atmospheric advection radius, represents the distance an atmospheric column is advected before it has equilibrated with the ocean through surface heat exchange. We stress that the precise values of time and length scales should not be taken too seriously. b. The evolution of a localized SST anomaly Here we isolate the effect of advective atmospheric heat transport by setting the diffusivity D to zero in Eq. (1a) . To begin, it is

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Robert S. Pickart

D location where topographic waves have been previously observed(Thompson and Luyten 1976).however, that in certain cases eastward propagatingmeanders can radiate energy. Hogg (1988) showed thatenergy radiation occurs if the meanders are modulatedin space and time, that is, if the meander amplitudevaries alongstream and if it has a growth-decay lifetime.This result is intriguing in light of the RISE observations. Rizzoli et al. (1994) suggested that in the presenceof a significant bottom slope

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Robert L. Street and Woodruff Miller Jr.

temperature. If OT/Ox is essentially zero,and we speak of a steady mean flow so OT/OtmO, then dT Q,= --o~oc,~K~. (3) dzIn the surface layer Qr is constant below the level ofback radiation and in the absence of solar (incoming)radiation. We ignore the temperature effects on p~and c~ across the thermal layers. Then, d-7 (4) Owen and Thomson (1963) and Yaglom and Kader(1974) discussed the flow over and heat

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