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Joseph Galewsky and Kimberly Samuels-Crow

end members of the simple two-component mixing curve. The 90% refers to the situation in which 90% of the mixture is from the dry air mass and 10% is from the moist air mass. For analysis in q – δ space, the most relevant atmospheric parameters for the Rayleigh curve are the initial isotopic composition of the water vapor and the temperature and pressure at the lifting condensation level (LCL). The reference Rayleigh distillation curve used here is based on an initial water vapor δ D of −100

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Xue-Fa Wen, Xuhui Lee, Xiao-Min Sun, Jian-Lin Wang, Ya-Kun Tang, Sheng-Gong Li, and Gui-Rui Yu

isotopic compositions ( Iannone et al. 2010 ), and calibration was achieved by interpolating between the two standards, which is a common practice used in mass spectrometer analysis. The error arising from the mismatch in the delta values between the sample and the calibration standard is sometimes referred to as the stretching of the delta scale. Interpolation between two or more standards with different delta values will remove this error. In the second and also the most popular method, liquid water

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Franziska Aemisegger and Jesper Sjolte

: Deuterium excess in recent Antarctic snow . J. Geophys. Res. , 96 , 5113 – 5122 , https://doi.org/10.1029/90JD02232 . 10.1029/90JD02232 Pfahl , S. , and H. Wernli , 2008 : Air parcel trajectory analysis of stable isotopes in water vapor in the eastern Mediterranean . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D20104 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD009839 . 10.1029/2008JD009839 Pfahl , S. , and H. Wernli , 2009 : Lagrangian simulations of stable isotopes in water vapor: An evaluation of nonequilibrium

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K. D. Hage, J. Gray, and J. C. Linton

measurementerrors by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite theappeal of stable isotope analysis in studies of the movement and transformation of water in the atmosphereand on earth, widespread use of the technique has not'been realized in meteorology. It is true that interpretation of large-scale features of the hydrological cycle bythis method alone is hampered by the complexityof fractionation processes and by the lack of adequatesimultaneous measurements of temperature, humidity,and air trajectories

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I. H. Bailey, J. R. Hulston, J. R. Stewart, and W. C. Macklin

.REFERENCESBailey, I. H., and W. C. Macklin, 1965: On the study of theformation of hailstones by means of isotopic analysis. J.Geophys. Res., 70, 493-497.-----, and -----, 1968: The surface configuration and internalstructure of artificial hailstones. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc,94, 1-11.Browning, K. A., 1966: The lobe structure of giant hailstones.Quart J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 92, 1-14.-----, F. H. Ludlam and W. C. Macklin, 1963: The density andstructure of hailstones. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 89, 75-84.Craig, H

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Joseph A. Warburton

keptin sealed containers and forwarded to the mass spectrometer laboratories for analysis. In the Sierra Nevadaprogram, all isotopic analyses were conducted in theDesert Research Institute laboratories in Las Vegas,while in the Australian program the mass spectrometeranalyses were conducted in the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)Division of Water Resources in Canberra, Australia.For the latter program it became necessary, because ofthe particular mass spectrometer

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William C. Macklin, Charles A. Knight, Howard E. Moore, Nancy C. Knight, Walter H. Pollock, John N. Carras, and Suszanne Thwaiters

is 10 ~m, the actual liquid water concentrations are then about 4 to 5.5 g ms.1. Introduction The purpose of studying hailstone structure is toobtain the hailstone growth trajectories and the conditions the hailstones experience (updrafts, liquidwater concentrations and droplet sizes) during theirgrowth in cumulonimbus clouds. Three methods ofhailstone analysis are currently available, i.e., determinations of their isotopic composition and of theircrystalline and air bubble structures. It must

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Huancui Hu, Francina Dominguez, Praveen Kumar, Jeffery McDonnell, and David Gochis

extreme event in the terrestrial hydrologic system. c. Comments In the two examples above, we illustrate the use of WT-Noah-MP to track event-based water in 1) a detailed examination of subsurface transit at the watershed scale and 2) a regional-scale event water budget analysis. Unlike isotope-enabled LSMs, we trace the total event-based water and not the isotopes. For this reason, no isotopic data are required to drive the tracer module because we only need the total water amount from the tagged

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Xiaoxin Yang, Tandong Yao, Wulin Yang, Baiqing Xu, You He, and Dongmei Qu

and sealed tightly before cool storage. A synchronous meteorological record was kept manually or by an automatic weather station (AWS), including parameters such as precipitation amount, temperature, humidity, air pressure, and wind speed. A total of 348 samples were collected at the Guangzhou Station, and 387 samples were collected at the Lulang Station. The δ 18 O of these samples was measured with a measurement and analysis technique (MAT) 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer at the Chinese

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Joseph Galewsky and David Rabanus

and confirmed that the mixing ratio bias had been corrected. The Picarro mixing ratios were within about 2% of those measured at the array operations site, a difference that we determined to be insignificant for the analysis presented below. The replacement isotopic analyzer was subjected to the same concentration dependence correction and standardization as our original system, so we believe that the data obtained by the two instruments are comparable. We used the ERA-Interim dataset ( Dee et al

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