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Patrick D. Broxton, Xubin Zeng, Damien Sulla-Menashe, and Peter A. Troch

1. Introduction Global land cover information is important for regional and global models because plant functional types (PFTs) strongly influence the land–atmosphere exchanges of water, energy, and carbon (e.g., Dickinson et al. 1986 ; Sellers et al. 1996 ; Bonan 1996 ). In particular, having an accurate baseline of land cover distribution is essential for modeling land surface processes, which affect many aspects of Earth’s climate system ( Bonan et al. 2002 ). Land cover products are used

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Stephen M. Strader, Walker S. Ashley, Thomas J. Pingel, and Andrew J. Krmenec

conterminous United States. Model accuracy was measured by employing a hindcast technique in conjunction with U.S. Census Bureau historical population and HU metrics ( Theobald 2005 ). Cross-validation results between the hindcast and U.S. Census Bureau metrics indicated that SERGoM HU estimations performed well with accuracies ranging from 80% to 91% ( Theobald 2005 ). b. Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios and Special Report Emissions Scenarios data More recently, the Integrated Climate and Land-Use

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O. A. Tuinenburg, R. W. A. Hutjes, T. Stacke, A. Wiltshire, and P. Lucas-Picher

-scale irrigation in India. The effects of the large-scale land use changes in India on the atmosphere and especially on precipitation have been the subject of numerous studies. Generally, the increased moisture availability at the land surface is thought to result in two opposing atmospheric effects. On the one hand, the increased moisture influx into the atmosphere may increase the moist static energy of the atmosphere and, subsequently, the chances of convective precipitation. On the other hand, when the

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Long Yang, James A. Smith, Daniel B. Wright, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, Fuqiang Tian, and Heping Hu

1. Introduction In this paper, we examine the hydroclimatology, hydrometeorology, and hydrology of floods through analyses centered on the Menomonee River basin in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, metropolitan region ( Fig. 1 ). The Menomonee River basin, which has a drainage area of 319 km 2 , exhibits heterogeneous land use and land cover, including some of the most heavily urbanized portions of Milwaukee ( Zhang and Smith 2003 ). Adjacent to the northern boundary of the Menomonee River basin is the

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E. A. Burakowski, S. V. Ollinger, G. B. Bonan, C. P. Wake, J. E. Dibb, and D. Y. Hollinger

et al. 2010 ). Betts (2001) reported −1 to −2 K of cooling in winter and spring in northern midlatitudes due to the increase in surface albedo over deforested lands covered with snow. Similarly, Feddema et al. (2005) reported regional cooling up to −2 K due to increases in surface albedo by replacing midlatitude forests with cropland. Most recently, the “Land-Use and Climate, Identification of Robust Impacts” (LUCID) project compared seven global climate models and reported an interquartile

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S. J. Bolsenga

1158 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY Vo~.cr~E16Lake-Land Precipitation Relationships Using Northern Lake Michigan Data S. J. BOLSENGAGreat Lakes En~ronrnen~ Reszarch Laboratory, NOAA, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48104(Manuscript received II October 1976, in revised form 12 August 1977) ABSTRACT Dam from a network of recording precipitation gages, operated over a 5-year period on

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V. Brovkin, L. Boysen, V. K. Arora, J. P. Boisier, P. Cadule, L. Chini, M. Claussen, P. Friedlingstein, V. Gayler, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, G. C. Hurtt, C. D. Jones, E. Kato, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, F. Pacifico, J. Pongratz, and M. Weiss

1. Introduction About one-third to one-half of the land surface has been modified by humans ( Ellis 2011 ; Vitousek et al. 1997 ), and the land-use extent is likely to increase in the future to accommodate a growing demand for land ( Carpenter et al. 2006 ). Anthropogenic land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) affects climate through two different pathways. The biogeophysical pathway considers alteration of the physical characteristics of the land surface such as albedo, soil moisture, and

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Kevin P. Gallo, David R. Easterling, and Thomas C. Peterson

NOVEMBER 1996 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 2941The Influence of Land Use/Land Cover on Climatological Values of the Diurnal Temperature Range KEVIN P. GALLOOffice of Research and Applications, NOAA/NESD1S, Washington, D.C. DAVID R. EASTERLING AND THOMAS C. PETERSONGlobal Climate Laboratory, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North

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Rongqian Yang, Kenneth Mitchell, Jesse Meng, and Michael Ek

prediction results from a given general circulation model (GCM) are sensitive to how the land component of the GCM is initialized and the starting dates used in the integrations (e.g., Dirmeyer 2001 ; Koster et al. 2000 , 2006 ). Therefore, harnessing the impact of land surface anomalies for seasonal predictions is a promising challenge that requires not only a large number of members in the ensemble set of seasonal predictions (e.g., Tribbia and Baumhefner 1988 ; Brankovic et al. 1994 ) but also

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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

variability driven by large-scale modes of variability ( Risbey et al. 2009 ). Land-use change (LUC) also affects the mean climate ( Pitman et al. 2009 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ) and climate extremes (e.g., Pitman et al. 2012 ), particularly at regional scales ( Deo et al. 2009 ; Kala et al. 2011 ; Nair et al. 2011 ; Avila et al. 2012 ). The persistence of droughts and heat waves has also been linked to land processes, mostly through the soil moisture limitation of

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