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Malcolm E. Brooks, Robin J. Hogan, and Anthony J. Illingworth

comparison in section 3 . In section 4 , a parameterization is developed for use within a GCM to obtain the C a for cloud from the currently held C υ , which is evaluated in section 5 . 2. Observational methods and data The primary observations are made from the 94-GHz Galileo cloud radar and Vaisala CT75K lidar ceilometer, at Chilbolton in southern England. At this site, stratiform and frontal cloud are predominantly observed. The radar and lidar are vertically pointing and operated near

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Kenneth Sassen and Kuo-Nan Liou

analysis Scattering observations performed in the backscattering direction have the additional significanceof containing information for monostatic remote sensingapplications. Some current problem areas of particular concern to the field of lidar meteorology arean inadequate understanding of the multiple-scattering process in water clouds and the lack of knowledgeof some scattering parameters for ice crystal clouds.Increased understanding of these factors would enablethe differences in water and ice

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Campbell D. Watson, Ronald B. Smith, and Alison D. Nugent

formation of raindrop nuclei. In this study, we investigate the plausibility of the first three hypotheses using aircraft observations from DOMEX and conventional analysis tools. We do not intend to prove that any of these hypotheses are the controlling factor; rather, we search for insight into their potential importance to the observed precipitation sensitivity. Evidence in support of the fourth hypothesis has been presented in Smith et al. (2012) and Nugent et al. (2014) . The manuscript is

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F. Waquet, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, P. Goloub, B. Cairns, J-L. Deuzé, and D. Tanré

(NASA) satellites called the A-Train includes passive and active sensors specifically dedicated to the study of aerosol and cloud properties from a three-dimensional perspective, exploiting simultaneous and collocated multisensor observations ( Stephens et al. 2002 ). Among these instruments, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences Coupled with Observations from a Lidar (PARASOL) instrument take advantage

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David M. Schultz, Katharine M. Kanak, Jerry M. Straka, Robert J. Trapp, Brent A. Gordon, Dusan S. Zrnić, George H. Bryan, Adam J. Durant, Timothy J. Garrett, Petra M. Klein, and Douglas K. Lilly

cloud base and superadiabatic lapse rates. Fig . 11. Mammatus vs reticular clouds. Two-dimensional sketch of possible (a) mammatus and (b) reticular vertical cloud structure. Table 1. Previous observational studies of mammatus. Types of observations: A = aircraft, GD = ground-based Doppler radar, AD = airborne Doppler radar, VD = vertically pointing Doppler radar, R = rawinsonde, L = lidar, P = stereo photogrammetry. N/A = not available. Height is in km MSL. 1 This cross section of radar

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Terry L. Clark, William D. Hall, and Robert M. Banta

nonlinear internal fluiddynamics as the model resolution increases. Comparisons of model simulations with the lidar observationsshowed good agreement on the spatial and temporal scales of lee eddies. A north-south scale of ~ 10 km occurredin both the realistic orography model results and observations. A relatively strong Coriolis effect was shown to result from the super- and subgeostrophic flows caused bythe nonlinear gravity wave dynamics. A northerly wind component of as much as 12 m s-~ at low

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Matthew D. Shupe, Sergey Y. Matrosov, and Taneil Uttal

comprehensive view of Arctic cloudiness in all seasons ( Intrieri et al. 2002 ) and a particularly wealthy set of mixed-phase cloud observations. Shupe et al. (2005) outlined an operational cloud property retrieval suite that combines cloud radar, lidar, dual-channel microwave radiometer, and radiosonde data to classify cloud types and retrieve cloud microphysical properties for the clouds observed at SHEBA. That study specifically focused on single-phase cloud retrievals and provided statistical results

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Reinout Boers and Alan K. Betts

circulation were isolated by a simple conditional sampling technique. Pair separation decreased downwardtowards the surface, as did the variance around the mean ascent and descent values. Also, the variance wassmaller for the ascending branch than for the descending branch. Spectral analysis of the saturation pressureshowed that the primary circulation scale was 5 kin, the same scale that was observed by lidar observations ofcloud.tops. A budget diagram for the time-dependent boundary layer is used to

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Robert J. States and Chester S. Gardner

mesosphere is essential for developing accurate global circulation and chemical models of the middle atmosphere. In situ rocket probes, airglow observations, and radars have been used for decades to characterize the mesosphere. During the past 15 years, Rayleigh and resonance fluorescence lidars have been developed to probe the thermal, wind, and density structure of the mesosphere with exceptional accuracy and resolution. Until now, most lidars were operated only at night to avoid the high background

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Philip B. Russell and Richard D. Hake Jr.

J.~u.~RY1977 PHILIP B. RUSSELL AND RICHARD D. HAKE, JR. 163The Post-Fuego Stratospheric Aerosol: Lidar Measurements, with Radiative and Thermal Implications PHILIP B. R~JSSELL AND RICHARD D. HAKE, JR.Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. 94025(Manuscript received 1 June 1976, in revised form 20 September 1976)ABSTRACT Fifteen lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol were

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