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Samuel K. Degelia, Xuguang Wang, David J. Stensrud, and David D. Turner

-scale NWP. Recent field campaigns have employed both thermodynamic and kinematic remote sensing profilers to evaluate their potential impact for NWP systems, including the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI; Feltz et al. 2003 ; Turner and Löhnert 2014 ), radar wind profilers (RWPs; Ecklund et al. 1988 ), and Doppler lidars ( Menzies and Hardesty 1989 ). AERIs retrieve thermodynamic profiles from observations of downwelling infrared radiance ( Turner and Löhnert 2014 ) and have been

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X. Zheng, S. A. Klein, V. P. Ghate, S. Santos, J. McGibbon, P. Caldwell, P. Bogenschutz, W. Lin, and M. P. Cadeddu

Sc regime and precipitation is a significant component for the PBL moisture budget ( Rémillard et al. 2012 ; Wood et al. 2016 ). By combining Doppler radar and backscatter lidar observations to more accurately estimate the size distribution and flux of precipitation below cloud, ARM provides a drizzle retrieval that serves as a comprehensive observational reference to evaluate the precipitation processes for marine Sc in GCMs ( O’Connor et al. 2005 ). ARM drizzle and turbulence retrievals from

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Andrew L. Molthan and Brian A. Colle

during the Canadian CloudSat/Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) Validation Project (C3VP). Although precipitation rates were comparable to observations, comparisons for C- and W-band radar reflectivity suggested a bias toward higher reflectivities aloft ( Shi et al. 2010 ). Molthan et al. (2010) evaluated the synoptic-scale snowfall event examined by Shi et al. (2010) and determined that the GCE scheme might be improved upon further by incorporating

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Richard M. Forbes and Maike Ahlgrimm

mixed-phase Arctic cloud case study, the impact on low cloud decks over the Southern Hemisphere high-latitude ocean using CloudSat / Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite data, and the impact on near-surface temperatures over land in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. The conclusions are given in section 5 . 2. ECMWF model representation of supercooled liquid water cloud The cloud parameterization in the ECMWF global IFS is based on Tiedtke

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Thomas R. Parish, David A. Rahn, and Dave Leon

1. Introduction Winds in the summertime atmospheric marine boundary layer (MBL) off the California coast (see Fig. 1 for a map of key geographical features and station locations) develop as a result of the horizontal pressure field set up by the Pacific high situated several hundred kilometers to the west of the coast and the thermal low over the desert southwest. Subsidence above the Pacific high establishes a temperature inversion at the top of the well-mixed MBL. Observations have shown

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Nicholas T. Luchetti, Katja Friedrich, Christopher E. Rodell, and Julie K. Lundquist

sensor and relative humidity are available at 3, 26, and 88 m AGL. All M-4 tower instruments sample at 20 Hz averaged to 1-min output ( Clifton et al. 2013 ; Clifton 2014 ). To avoid tower-wake impacts ( Clifton 2014 ), we only consider winds between 25° and 100° and 175° and 300°; we removed one event at the NWTC. c. Description of remote sensing research instruments In addition to tower observations, both sites use a Radiometrics MWR-3000A microwave radiometer and Leosphere/NRG WindCube lidars. A

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Tammy M. Weckwerth, Hanne V. Murphey, Cyrille Flamant, Janine Goldstein, and Crystalyne R. Pettet

. Revercomb , 2003 : Near continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). J. Appl. Meteor. , 42 , 584 – 597 . Ferrare , R. A. , J. L. Schols , E. W. Eloranta , and R. Coulter , 1991 : Lidar observations of banded convection during BLX83. J. Appl. Meteor. , 30 , 312 – 326 . Fovell , R. G. , and P. S. Dailey , 2001 : Numerical simulation of the interaction between the sea-breeze front and

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

higher altitudes (e.g., Siskind 2014 ). Thereby, the wind field and the thermal structure of the middle atmosphere are modified (e.g., Lindzen 1981 ; Holton and Alexander 2000 ). Internal gravity waves have been measured and analyzed with a large variety of active and passive remote sensing techniques as well as with in situ observations. These observational tools include airborne and ground-based lidars (e.g., Alexander et al. 2011 ; Dörnbrack et al 2002 ; Rauthe et al. 2008 ; Williams et al

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Pierre Gauthier, Philippe Courtier, and Patrick Moll

JUNE 1993 GAUTHIER ET AL. 1803Assimilation of Simulated Wind Lidar Data with a Kalman FilterPIERRE GAUTHIER, * PHILIPPE COURTIER, AND PATRICK MOLL CNRM, Mdt~o-France, Paris, France (Manuscript received 12 May 1992, in final form 30 November 1992) ABSTRACT The object of this paper is to present some results

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Patrick Minnis, Joseph M. Alvarez, Kenneth Sassen, David F. Young, and Christian J. Grund

Company, Hampton, Virginia,- * Department of Meteorology. University of Utah. Salt Lake City. Utah,- Department of Meteorology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (Manuscript received 24 March 1989, in final form 12 June 1990)ABSTRACT Cirrus cloud radiative and physical characteristics are determined using a combination of ground-based,aircraft, and satellite measurements taken as part of the FIRE Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO) duringOctober and November 1986. Lidar

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