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Charles Jones

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent mode of tropical intraseasonal variability ( Lau and Waliser 2005 ; Madden and Julian 1994 ; Zhang 2005 ). The oscillation is confined to the global tropics and propagates eastward with phase speeds on the order of 5–10 m s −1 and horizontal structures dominated by zonal wavenumbers 1–4 ( Hendon and Salby 1994 ). The MJO influences the monsoons in Asia, Australia, and Americas ( Goswami and Mohan 2001 ; Higgins and

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Charles Jones and Jimy Dudhia

1. Introduction Since its discovery in the 1970s ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 , 1994 ), the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) has attracted significant research interest to further explain its mechanisms and its role in weather and climate variability ( Zhang 2005 ; Lau and Waliser 2012 ; Zhang 2013 ). The typical life cycle of the MJO shows regions of tropical intraseasonal (20–100 day) enhanced and suppressed convective anomalies propagating eastward from the tropical Indian Ocean to the

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Haikun Zhao, Ryuji Yoshida, and G. B. Raga

various modes of climate variability that can partially explain interannual ( Wang and Chan 2002 ), interdecadal ( Chan 2008 ; Liu and Chan 2008 ; Zhao et al. 2014 ; Hsu et al. 2014 ), and intraseasonal variability ( Li and Zhou 2013a , b ; Huang et al. 2011 ; Wang et al. 2009 ; Wang and Zhou 2008 ; Liebmann et al. 1994 ). On the intraseasonal time scale, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ) is a dominant large-scale mode of tropical variability with a period of 30

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Michael J. Ventrice, Matthew C. Wheeler, Harry H. Hendon, Carl J. Schreck III, Chris D. Thorncroft, and George N. Kiladis

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is the most dominant mode of intraseasonal variability across the tropics. It is a planetary-scale, baroclinic disturbance in circulation that is coupled to large-scale variations in convection. The MJO convective signal propagates eastward along the equator at about 5 m s −1 , and is primarily confined to the Eastern Hemisphere, although its circulation signal influences the global tropics ( Hendon and Salby

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Ruiqiang Ding, Jianping Li, and Kyong-Hwan Seo

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO), one of the dominant modes of low-frequency variability in the tropical troposphere ( Wang and Rui 1990 ; Madden and Julian 1994 ), is characterized by an eastward progression of large regions of both enhanced and suppressed tropical rainfall, observed mainly over the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean. The MJO affects a wide range of tropical weather and climate, including tropical cyclone formation ( Nakazawa 1986

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Samson Hagos, L. Ruby Leung, and Jimy Dudhia

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is one of the most important components of tropical intraseasonal variability. Discovered by Madden and Julian (1971) , this oscillation is an equatorial planetary-scale envelope of several complex multiscale processes. It originates over the Indian Ocean and propagates eastward across the Maritime Continent and western Pacific at a speed of about 5 m s −1 . A number of observational studies have provided important insights into the evolution

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Satoko Matsueda and Yuhei Takaya

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics ( Madden and Julian 1994 ; Zhang 2005 ), and it influences weather and climate over not only the tropics but also the extratropics (e.g., Matthews et al. 2004 ). Previous studies have examined various regional influences of the MJO on, for instance, precipitation over East Asia ( Jeong et al. 2008 ), the intraseasonal fluctuations of the Australian summer monsoon ( Hendon and

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Charles Jones, Leila M. V. Carvalho, Jon Gottschalck, and Wayne Higgins

outcomes of this program are an improved understanding of the dynamics and limits of predictability and measurable improvements in decisions affecting society, ecosystems, and the natural environment. The THORPEX goals include improved understanding of the influence of subseasonal variability on forecast skill. The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the most important form of tropical intraseasonal variability that impacts weather and climate ( Madden and Julian 1994 ; Maloney and Hartmann 2000

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Guihua Wang, Zheng Ling, Renguang Wu, and Changlin Chen

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant tropical intraseasonal signal with periods of 20–90 days ( Madden and Julian 1994 ; Zhang 2005 ). It is characterized by atmospheric circulation and moist convection anomalies that propagate eastward from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific. The MJO can influence rainfall in many regions, modulating the weather systems and interacting with the ocean ( Jones et al. 1998 ; Maloney and Hartmann 2000 ; Morita et al. 2006

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Yang Zhou, Keith R. Thompson, and Youyu Lu

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the primary mode of variability of the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal time scales ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ). The MJO has been related to a wide variety of atmospheric phenomena at low latitudes including the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO; e.g., Kessler and Kleeman 2000 ; McPhaden et al. 2006 ), the onset of the Indian monsoon (e.g., Lau and Chan 1986 ) and the East Asian monsoon (e.g., Wu and Zhang 1998 ), the North

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