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Esther Capó, Alejandro Orfila, Evan Mason, and Simón Ruiz

1. Introduction Ocean circulation in the western Mediterranean Sea (WMed; acronyms are defined in appendix A ) is governed by processes within a broad range of time and spatial scales, from the basin-scale long-term thermohaline circulation to the short-lived small-scale eddies and meanders of the order of few kilometers or less. Its location and complicated bathymetric configuration sets the mesoscale limit, defined by the Rossby radius of deformation, between 5 and 15 km depending on the

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Orit Altaratz, Zev Levin, Yoav Yair and, and Baruch Ziv

particles grew more slowly and charging occurred in later stages of the cloud life cycle. Such low concentrations of ice nuclei are often found in maritime clouds. The reviewed explanations clearly indicate that microphysical and cloud-scale dynamical processes are closely intertwined and that the differences in lightning activity in maritime and continental clouds is a reflection of other, more fundamental, differences. 2. The Mediterranean Sea As one of the major centers of electrical activity in the

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Luciana Bertotti, Luigi Cavaleri, Layla Loffredo, and Lucio Torrisi

1. Purpose of the work Nettuno is a high-resolution local-scale wind and wave forecast system operational in the Mediterranean Sea. Several parallel systems are available in this area, although often not on the whole basin. Some of these results are public domain (within limits), but a thorough analysis of the related performance is not a frequent product. A notable exception is the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) intercomparison exercise focused on

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Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Emilio García-Ladona, Jordi Font, and Antonio García-Olivares

PDFs are due to coherent vortices in a semienclosed basin such as the Mediterranean basin. The Mediterranean Sea is dominated by the entrance of freshwater incoming from the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar. The instability of this inflow and local wind action often generate coherent vortices in several parts of the basin that enhance the mixing of these incoming light waters with the saltier resident waters (e.g., Millot 1999 , 2005 ). Analysis of altimetric maps shows that PDFs of

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Gurvan Madec, Pascale Delecluse, Michel Crépon, and François Lott

VOLUME26 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY AUGUST1996Large-Scale Preconditioning of Deep-Water Formation in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea GURVAN MADEC, * FRANCOIS LOTT, + PASCALE DELECLUSE, * AND MICHEL CR~PON *- Laboratoire d'Ocdanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie, Unitd mixte de recherche CNRS/ORSTOM/UPMC,Universitd Paris VI, Paris, France+ Laboratoire de Mdt~orologie Dynamique, CNRS

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Gurvan Madec, Pascale Delecluse, Michel Crepon, and Michel Chartier

-FAR, Fontenay-Aux-Roses, France (Manuscript received 14 December 1989, in final form 15 August 1990)ABSTRACT Deep-water formation (DWF) in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea and the subsequent horizontal cimulationare investigated in a rectangular basin with a three-dimensional primitive equation model. The basin is forcedby constant climatological heat and salt fluxes. Convective motion is parameterized by a simple nonpenetrativeconvective adjustment process plus Richardson number

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C. Herbaut, F. Martel, and M. Crépon

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea is a thermodynamic system that transforms the Atlantic incoming oceanic waters into denser ones through processes dependent on interaction with the atmosphere. The difference of density between the Western Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean and between Western and Eastern Mediterranean basins drives the mean transports through the Straits of Gibraltar and Sicily. They both contribute to the forcing of the cyclonic circulation of the modified Atlantic

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G. Korres, N. Pinardi, and A. Lascaratos

by the purely observational evidence due to the lack of high-resolution space–time datasets. Thus there is an unresolved question about the origin and structure of the interannual variability of the basin general circulation that can be addressed by general circulation modeling. In this paper we explore some of the dynamical mechanisms responsible for interannual variability in the Mediterranean Sea with such a general circulation model, focusing on the ocean response to atmospheric forcing. The

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Jaume Rosselló and Aon Waqas

/or weather conditions at the destination, as a pull factor. In this paper, the relationship between the interest in Majorca, evaluated through Google searches, and the meteorological conditions both in the country of origin (United Kingdom and Germany) and at the destination is investigated. Majorca is a popular “sun, sea, and sand” destination in the Mediterranean, known for its warm climate conditions. Thus, this paper contributes to further knowledge of the interaction between weather and tourism by

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S. Zecchetto and F. De Biasio

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea is a semienclosed basin, with a maximum extent of about 4000 km east–west and 1200 km north–south. It is almost entirely surrounded by mountain chains (with the exception of the east coast of Tunisia), which often rise nearby the coastline. The complexity of the coastal orography and the presence of mountainous islands deeply influence the local-scale atmospheric circulation in the Ekman layer, producing local effects at spatial scales down to a few

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