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Edwin K. Schneider, Lennart Bengtsson, and Zeng-Zhen Hu

1. Introduction The Northern Hemisphere winter atmospheric circulation has displayed noticeable trends over the past half century ( Fig. 1a ). Understanding the origin of these trends is important for evaluating and predicting human influence on climate ( Wallace and Thompson 2002) , and it is the purpose of this study to add to this understanding. Wallace and Thompson (2002 , their Fig. 1) point out an interesting resemblance between the structure of the NH December–January–February (DJF) sea

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A. Buzzi and E. Tosi

. The percentage of total standarddeviation accounted for by the filtered part is, for example, about 40% in the storm-track area over 'the Atlantic, and about 35% in the Mediterranean area (seealso Wallace and Blackmon 1983). Because high-frequency eddies are present at midlatitudes over the whole year, we included all seasons.Of course, since high-frequency variability is more intense during winter and intermediate seasons, the statistical results are more representative of the colder partof

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Michael Goss and Steven B. Feldstein

convective precipitation field is shown in the right column (first row), where we see that the extratropical response to El Niño–like convective anomalies corresponds to highs centered over central Asia, near Hawaii, over Canada, and over the Mediterranean Sea, with lows centered over southeastern Asia, the Gulf of Alaska, the southern United States, and along the west coast of northern Africa. All of these anomalies correspond very well with the sum of the composites for individual domains (right column

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Kurt F. Schmitt, Carl A. Friehe, and Carl H. Gibson

wereperformed by Davis e! al. (1978). Several other marine surface layer turbulence studieshave been conducted, and a brief review is given here.Kitaigorodskii (1968) reported results from micrometeorological measurements obtained from a buoyin the Mediterranean Sea during 1965. An extensivestudy was performed during the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment in 1969 usingaircraft, surface ships and the R/P Flip [for a generalreview see Holland (1972)-]. Mitsuta and Fujitani(1974) measured

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Peter Bauer, A. Khain, A. Pokrovsky, R. Meneghini, C. Kummerow, F. Marzano, and J. P. V. Poiares Baptista

snow; different regimes of droplets and ice sedimentation, which determine their terminal fall velocities; and breakup of drops and snowflakes. The presented cloud model simulation describes the evolution of cloud patterns associated with coastal circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during a rain event in the cold season when sea surface temperature is about 5 K higher than the land surface temperature. The computational area contains 65 grid points in the horizontal and 41 layers in the

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Maurice L. Blackmon, Ronald A. Madden, John M. Wallace, and David S. Gutzler

correlation coefficientsfor 2) were characterized by small positive valuesover the eastern Atlantic and parts of the Mediterranean and' negative values ranging down to about-0.4 over Europe and North Africa. Klein (1967) examined the geographical distribution of the linear correlation between 700 mb heightand sea-level pressure making use of about 15 yearsof gridded data for the entire Northern Hemisphere,poleward of 20-N, stratified by calendar month.The resulting patterns were rather similar to

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Junshi Ito, Hiroshige Tsuguchi, Syugo Hayashi, and Hiroshi Niino

location of their occurrence and amount of precipitation ( Kato 2020 ). Unuma and Takemi (2016) analyzed operational weather radar data over the Japanese islands and detected more than 4000 quasi-stationary QLCSs in the warm seasons between 2005 and 2012. A large fraction of the quasi-stationary QLCSs occurred over Kyushu Island in the southwestern part of Japan ( Fig. 1a ). Kyushu Island is exposed to warm moist westerly or southwesterly flow from the East China Sea during the summer, especially in

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M. Kanakidou, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. Daskalakis, G. Fanourgakis, A. Nenes, A. R. Baker, K. Tsigaridis, and N. Mihalopoulos

productivity. Higher contributions have been estimated for semienclosed marine ecosystems such as the Mediterranean Sea, for which atmospheric deposition of N may account for up to 35%–60% of new production ( Christodoulaki et al. 2013 ). Reactive nitrogen is also an important driver of atmospheric chemistry, since ozone production is controlled by nitrogen oxides availability. Nitric acid is a major contributor to the atmospheric acidity, ranking second after sulfuric acid, and NH 3 is the main

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Masao Kanamitsu, Walter James Koss, and John D. Lee

~k for the northernwinter are shown in Fig. 3. These should be comparedwith the corresponding figures for northern summerpresented in I. Westerlies dominate the subtropics ofthe Northern Hemisphere and the subtropical jet streamof winter is evident in the regions where Ikx*~[ islarge (see also Krishnamurti, 1961). The three waves ofthe subtropical jet stream have three regions of maximum velocity, off the southeastern United States, southof the Mediterranean Sea, and off the coast of Japan

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Åke Johansson, Anthony Barnston, Suranjana Saha, and Huug van den Dool

temperature study in B94. The sparsity of Scandinavian stations and the inclusion of southern Europe in B94 cause results to be markedly different from those found here. Skill in B94 for northern Europe is much more modest thanthat found here, being overshadowed by relatively stronger relationships involving southern France and the western Mediterranean Sea in general. The associated forecast skill is found mainly in late summer and autumn, and is found to be related to the worldwide tropical SST anomaly

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