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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

concept, including its formulation, the known major forcing agents, and various applications of the concept. We attempt to capture the historical evolution of the above foci through approximately mid-2010. Of necessity, given the nature of the paper for the American Meteorological Society centennial monograph volume and the vast domain of the topic, the principal aim of this manuscript is to describe the evolution as evidenced through the literature, particularly the major international assessment

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Graham Feingold and Allison McComiskey

radiometer (MFRSR)] and LWP (microwave radiometer) and used surface aerosol measurements of light scattering as a proxy for the aerosol concentration affecting the cloud. 5 They too quantified b and showed the strong correlation between LWP and τ c for a much larger sample size; on average more than 60% of the variance in τ c was due to variance in LWP. Garrett et al. (2004) used similar instrumentation to quantify b at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), arguing that the aged aerosol particles

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Pavlos Kollias, Eugene E. Clothiaux, Thomas P. Ackerman, Bruce A. Albrecht, Kevin B. Widener, Ken P. Moran, Edward P. Luke, Karen L. Johnson, Nitin Bharadwaj, James B. Mead, Mark A. Miller, Johannes Verlinde, Roger T. Marchand, and Gerald G. Mace

decades after World War II enabled the generation of this first file. So what are the watershed events that led to the development of the ARM Program’s cloud radar activities? From our perspective, these events were the First ISCCP Regional Experiments (FIRE) Second Cirrus Intensive Field Observation (IFO) campaign in southern Kansas from 13 November 1991 through 7 December 1991 (e.g., Uttal et al. 1995 ) and the FIRE Second Marine Stratocumulus IFO campaign in the Azores Islands in the eastern North

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E. J. Mlawer and D. D. Turner

. 2003 ). To reduce these uncertainties to a level where the water vapor profiles could be used with sufficient confidence, a concentrated effort and a series of field experiments were conducted at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. Turner et al. (2016 , chapter 13) provides a history of this work, without which improvements in the infrared radiation modeling would not have been possible. The prototype AERI-00, which used liquid nitrogen to cryogenically cool

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P. R. Field, R. P. Lawson, P. R. A. Brown, G. Lloyd, C. Westbrook, D. Moisseev, A. Miltenberger, A. Nenes, A. Blyth, T. Choularton, P. Connolly, J. Buehl, J. Crosier, Z. Cui, C. Dearden, P. DeMott, A. Flossmann, A. Heymsfield, Y. Huang, H. Kalesse, Z. A. Kanji, A. Korolev, A. Kirchgaessner, S. Lasher-Trapp, T. Leisner, G. McFarquhar, V. Phillips, J. Stith, and S. Sullivan

prevalent is secondary ice production in the atmosphere? In which types of clouds is the process active, and is the process important for NWP and climate modeling? Operational radar networks across Europe and America are being upgraded to dual-polarization, leading to a wealth of currently untapped statistical information on the occurrence of SIP, and their role in precipitation development. Why is it often observed that large (>1 mm) drops are needed for SIP? Is it to accumulate sufficient aerosol

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