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Christopher C. Chapman, Bernadette M. Sloyan, Terence J. O’Kane, and Matthew A. Chamberlain

). Since the time scales are considerably longer in the ocean than in the atmosphere, oceanic teleconnections can provide a mechanism for interseasonal and interannual predictions. Of particular interest are long baroclinic planetary waves (LPWs), which have the following characteristics ( Killworth et al. 1997 ; Killworth and Blundell 1999 ; Maharaj et al. 2007 ): wavelengths that are long relative to the local deformation radius R D ; periods that are long relative to the inertial period f −1 of

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Y. C. Sud, W. K-M. Lau, G. K. Walker, J-H. Kim, G. E. Liston, and P. J. Sellers

DECEMBER 1996 S U D E T A L. 3225Biogeophysical Consequences of a Tropical Deforestation Scenario: A GCM Simulation StudyY. C. SUD,* G. K. WALKER,+ J.-H. KIM,# G. E. LISTON,@ P. J. SELLERS,& AND W. K.-M. LAU** Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland+ General Sciences Corporation# Applied Research Corporationr Universities

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Aiko Voigt, Bjorn Stevens, Jürgen Bader, and Thorsten Mauritsen

1. Introduction Earth is subject to boundary conditions that do not fulfill hemispheric symmetry. In particular, most landmasses and the major part of the atmospheric aerosol loading ( Geogdzhayev et al. 2005 ; Kishcha et al. 2009 ) are located north of the equator. This suggests that the Northern Hemisphere should reflect more shortwave irradiance than the Southern Hemisphere but, when Vonder Haar and Suomi (1971) presented satellite-based estimates of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiance for

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Liming Zhou, Yuhong Tian, Nan Wei, Shu-peng Ho, and Jing Li

1. Introduction The land surface has a pronounced diurnal cycle in solar insolation, surface temperatures, and atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL). Turbulent mixing in the PBL dominates the vertical exchange of heat, moisture, momentum, trace gases, and aerosols in the surface–atmosphere interface, and strongly influences the tropospheric temperature, humidity, and wind ( Stull 1988 ). One fundamental variable of the PBL is the PBL height (PBLH). PBLH represents the maximum height of the

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Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, Philip J. Pegion, Randal D. Koster, and Julio T. Bacmeister

jets, transient eddies, and the eddy-driven mean meridional circulation. Schubert et al. (2004b) found that during the 1930s, tropical Atlantic SST anomalies also played an important role: the tropical Pacific SST anomalies forced changes in the planetary-scale waves and Pacific storm tracks (primarily during the winter and spring), while the tropical Atlantic/Caribbean SST anomalies forced changes in the Bermuda high and the associated low-level moisture flux into the continent (primarily during

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Alexey Yu. Karpechko and Elisa Manzini

1. Introduction The stratospheric meridional circulation, also known as the Brewer–Dobson (BD) circulation, is characterized by ascent in the tropics and descent in the extratropics [see the review by Butchart (2014) ]. It transfers ozone from its source region in the tropics to the extratropics, which has a profound impact on surface UV radiations (e.g., Fioletov et al. 1997 ) and air quality (e.g., Neu et al. 2014 ). The BD circulation is driven by the dissipation of planetary and gravity

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Takafumi Miyasaka and Hisashi Nakamura

that their dynamics may be understood within essentially the same framework as is applicable to their NH counterpart. As argued by Hoskins (1996) and Rodwell and Hoskins (2001) , the theory of a zonally symmetric Hadley circulation predicts much weaker subtropical subsidence in the summer hemisphere than in the winter hemisphere ( Lindzen and Hou 1988 ). In relation to the formation of zonally asymmetric circulation in the subtropics as a manifestation of the climatological summertime planetary

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Brian Medeiros, Alex Hall, and Bjorn Stevens

1. Introduction The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is a critical component of earth’s climate system. It mediates the exchanges of heat, momentum, moisture, and chemical constituents between the surface and free atmosphere and is the largest sink for atmospheric kinetic energy. Boundary layer processes are also primarily responsible for low clouds like stratocumulus and are of fundamental importance for cumulus convection, implying that the PBL has important roles in both the atmospheric

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M. Latif and T. P. Barnett

February 1996)ABSTRACT The dynamics and predictability of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America areinvestigated by analyzing various observational datasets and the output of a state of the art coupled oceanatmosphere general circulation model that was integrated for 125 years. Both the observations and model resultssupport the picture that the decadal variability in the region of interest is based on a cycle involving unstableocean-atmosphere interactions over the

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James A. Coakley Jr. and Takahisa Kobayashi

geometries the biases areestimated to reach 5% in the planetary albedo and -5% in surface insolation. The biases increase with increasingsolar zenith angle, but on average the percentage bias is fairy insensitive to cloud optical depth. The constancyof the percentage bias should allow it to be largely removed from climatological datasets.1. Introduction In using satellite imagery data to assess the effect ofclouds on the radiation budget of the earth's atmosphere, one often applies a threshold to the

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