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M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Piatt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan

The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is being developed by NASA/Langley Research Center for a series of flights on the space shuttle beginning in 1994. Employing a three-wavelength Nd:YAG laser and a 1-m-diameter telescope, the system is a test-bed for the development of technology required for future operational spaceborne lidars. The system has been designed to observe clouds, tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols, characteristics of the planetary boundary layer, and stratospheric density and temperature perturbations with much greater resolution than is available from current orbiting sensors. In addition to providing unique datasets on these phenomena, the data obtained will be useful in improving retrieval algorithms currently in use. Observations of clouds and the planetary boundary layer will aid in the development of global climate model (GCM) parameterizations. This article briefly describes the LITE program and discusses the types of scientific investigations planned for the first flight.

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Jian Zhang, Kenneth Howard, Carrie Langston, Steve Vasiloff, Brian Kaney, Ami Arthur, Suzanne Van Cooten, Kevin Kelleher, David Kitzmiller, Feng Ding, Dong-Jun Seo, Ernie Wells, and Chuck Dempsey

The National Mosaic and Multi-sensor QPE (Quantitative Precipitation Estimation), or “NMQ”, system was initially developed from a joint initiative between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Severe Storms Laboratory, the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Weather Research Program, and the Salt River Project. Further development has continued with additional support from the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development, the NWS Office of Climate, Water, and Weather Services, and the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. The objectives of NMQ research and development (R&D) are 1) to develop a hydrometeorological platform for assimilating different observational networks toward creating high spatial and temporal resolution multisensor QPEs for f lood warnings and water resource management and 2) to develop a seamless high-resolution national 3D grid of radar reflectivity for severe weather detection, data assimilation, numerical weather prediction model verification, and aviation product development.

Through about ten years of R&D, a real-time NMQ system has been implemented (http://nmq.ou.edu). Since June 2006, the system has been generating high-resolution 3D reflectivity mosaic grids (31 vertical levels) and a suite of severe weather and QPE products in real-time for the conterminous United States at a 1-km horizontal resolution and 2.5 minute update cycle. The experimental products are provided in real-time to end users ranging from government agencies, universities, research institutes, and the private sector and have been utilized in various meteorological, aviation, and hydrological applications. Further, a number of operational QPE products generated from different sensors (radar, gauge, satellite) and by human experts are ingested in the NMQ system and the experimental products are evaluated against the operational products as well as independent gauge observations in real time.

The NMQ is a fully automated system. It facilitates systematic evaluations and advances of hydrometeorological sciences and technologies in a real-time environment and serves as a test bed for rapid science-to-operation infusions. This paper describes scientific components of the NMQ system and presents initial evaluation results and future development plans of the system.

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Wallace E. Howell

that the filter deviceswere unable to detect IN in the SGC is not justified. REFERENCEParungo, F. P., and P. A. Allee, 1978: Rocket effluent: Its ice nucleation activity and related properties. J. Appl. Meteor., 17, 1856-1863.Comments on "Planned Weather Modification and the Severe Weather Threat in the Central High Plains" WALLACE E. HOWELLl Rural Route 3, Box 400, Golden CO 80401 31 August 1979 The weather modification

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This appendix is the executive summary of the 1996 Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) (DOE/ER-0670T, UC-402; available online at https://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-er-0670t.pdf ) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Environmental Sciences Division. The text has been edited to conform to the style of the American Meteorological Society, but the content is otherwise

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_-____-___ ,020418 __.____.__,032670 __________ ,001814 __________.021589 .__.__.___.006352 ._________.047043 ._________.002iX ____._____PLAN FOR DIRECT CALL TO SHIPS BY RADIO FOR WEATHER REPORTS DURINGHURRICANE SEASON[Bulletin issued by the Forecnst Division. \Venther Roredu, Washington, June 1, 19331When a tropica,l disturbance is in progress in the southern portion of the North Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, or the Caribbean Sea, ship reports of weather conditions by radio are frequent,ly lacking from the

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Murray J. Young

DECF. MBF. R 1962 M U R R A Y J. Y O U N G 531Comparison of Methods for Determining Probable Impact Areas in Planning Short Range Instrumented Balloon Flights MtmRAv_ J. You'xcClimatic Center, U. S. Air Force(Manuscript received 18 April 1962)ABSTRACT Circular normal and elliptical normal wind distributions weighted for ascent and descent time as well asflight level time are compared with the

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Melissa L. Finucane, Rachel Miller, L. Kati Corlew, Victoria W. Keener, Maxine Burkett, and Zena Grecni

change. Increasing air temperatures and changing rainfall patterns will make freshwater more scarce on many Pacific islands. When the quality and quantity of available water are affected by climatic events, island economies, environments, and public health are at risk. Many Pacific island agencies lack, but want, better guidance for their efforts aimed at assessing and predicting water resources, justifying planning actions, and evaluating water usage plans ( Anderson et al. 2007 ; Keener et al

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Christine J. Kirchhoff, Scott E. Kalafatis, Donald Scavia, and Richard B. Rood

1990s to both produce and broker climate information, the RISA program has been hailed as one of the most successful climate science boundary organizations in the United States ( Dilling and Lemos 2011 ; Feldman and Ingram 2009 ; McNie 2013 ; NRC 2010 ). At present, 11 RISAs serve a diverse range of climate information users (e.g., water managers, farmers, city managers and planners, forest managers, energy producers, public health managers) by supporting better planning for and in response to

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Jonathan Lala, Seifu Tilahun, and Paul Block

1. Introduction Ethiopia’s main rainy season, the Kiremt, occurs during the boreal summer and is responsible for 65%–95% of total annual rainfall in the country, making it the primary driver of agricultural production ( Segele et al. 2015 ). Agricultural planning, livestock herding, and reservoir management all rely on these rains, largely affecting national welfare. The tragically reoccurring droughts that have plagued East Africa’s most populous country for centuries are most often associated

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Savin S. Chand, Lynda E. Chambers, Mike Waiwai, Philip Malsale, and Elisabeth Thompson

such, this knowledge does not always conform to “standard” westernized scientific formats, thus making scientific analysis difficult (e.g., Mackinson 2001 ). Regardless, indigenous knowledge continues to play a significant role in the modern world. Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in indigenous knowledge in areas such as disaster risk reduction and planning (e.g., Mercer et al. 2007 ; Cutter et al. 2012 ), and it is now recognized as an important knowledge system for decision

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