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Alexandre Trouvilliez, Florence Naaim-Bouvet, Hervé Bellot, Christophe Genthon, and Hubert Gallée

campaigns and in road management is the FlowCapt. It is a commercialized acoustic sensor able to quantify the horizontal snow flux with an accuracy given by the manufacturer of ±5% ( Chritin et al. 1999 ).This instrument has been used in different research campaigns in the Swiss and French Alps ( Lehning and Fierz 2008 ; Naaim-Bouvet et al. 2010 ), in the Arctic region ( Jaedicke 2002 ; Savelyev et al. 2006 ), and in Antarctica ( Scarchilli et al. 2010 ; Gallée et al. 2013 ). Two successive versions

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Pierre Durand, Leonardo De Sa, Aimé Druilhet, and Frédérique Said

78 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME8Use of the Inertial Dissipation Method for Calculating Turbulent Fluxes from Low-Level Airborne MeasurementsPIERRE DURANO, LEONARDO DE SA,* AIM~ DRUILHET AND FR]~D~RIQUE SAID Laboratoire d;4drologie, Universit~ Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France (Manuscript received 23 February 1990, in final form 3 October 1990)ABSTRACT Airborne measurements are

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Paul J. Hughes, Mark A. Bourassa, Jeremy J. Rolph, and Shawn R. Smith

turbulent heat fluxes are also dependent on the atmospheric stability through the transfer coefficients; therefore, unrealistic stable or near-neutral conditions caused by the air temperature error can result in a reduction of the surface fluxes. To remove the radiative heating errors from the VOS observations in the most severely impacted regions (with very low monthly mean wind speeds), a heat budget model developed by Berry et al. (2004) was applied to the individual ship observations. The Reynolds

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Robert A. Weller, Frank Bradley, and Roger Lukas

the fluxes of sensible and latent heat and the emission of longwave radiation occurs at the interface, whereas the shortwave radiative heating is distributed over depth ( Fairall et al. 1996a ). Under conditions of light wind and strong sun, a diurnal warm layer can form in the near surface producing vertical gradients as much as 3°C in the upper meter ( Price et al. 1986 ). Thus, the common nomenclature “SST” is ambiguous generally, and particularly unhelpful in the context of the domain and

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Michel Viollier, Carsten Standfuss, Olivier Chomette, and Arnaud Quesney

a : Angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux estimation for the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. Part I: Methodology. J. Appl. Meteor. , 42 , 240 – 265 . 10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<0240:ADMFTO>2.0.CO;2 Loeb, N. G. , Loukachine K. , Manalo-Smith N. , Wielicki B. A. , and Young D. F. , 2003b : Angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux estimation from the

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L. A. Sromovsky, J. R. Anderson, F. A. Best, J. P. Boyle, C. A. Sisko, and V. E. Suomi

1. Introduction The Skin-Layer Ocean Heat Flux Instrument (SOHFI) is being developed for long periods of untended in situ measurement of surface heat flux in an ocean environment. A preliminary description of this work was provided by Suomi et al. (1996) . Our long-term objective is a sensor and data collection system that can be deployed from drifting buoys in support of field experiments from which heat flux parameterization algorithms could be refined and tested, and in support of

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Andreas Giez, Gerhard Ehret, Ronald L. Schwiesow, Kenneth J. Davis, and Donald H. Lenschow

significantly across the earth’s surface due, for example, to variability in insolation, vegetation cover, soil properties, and precipitation. Area-averaged water vapor flux measurements are necessary to get a large-scale view of surface–atmosphere interactions. Similarly, diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal cycles are responsible for the temporal variability in the vertical transport of water, so the ability to observe water vapor flux over long time periods is also valuable. The eddy-covariance technique has

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Fred G. Rose, David A. Rutan, Thomas Charlock, G. Louis Smith, and Seiji Kato

of the adjustment for each tuning variable so as to better match the observed TOA fluxes. Ensure that no variable is overadjusted relative to its predefined uncertainty. Rerun the radiative transfer model using the adjusted model inputs to create a “tuned” computed irradiance. An additional requirement for the process is that it also needs to be computationally inexpensive, because this process is used in an operational code and run over 2 million times to process one day of data. Because of this

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Liguo Su, Richard L. Collins, David A. Krueger, and Chiao-Yao She

1. Introduction Investigation of the mesosphere has been prompted by the fact that the region is maintained far from radiative equilibrium by dynamic and chemical heating effects ( Andrews et al. 1987 ). Inertial gravity (or buoyancy) waves, with periods from several minutes to several hours and vertical wavelengths on order of kilometers, have been recognized as a major contribution to the general circulation of the middle atmosphere since the 1970s ( Houghton 1978 ). These waves are primarily

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Shoichiro Fukao, Toru Sato, Toshitaka Tsuda, Susumu Kato, Motoyuki Inaba, and Iwane Kimura

momentum flux by MSTradars. Side and plan views are given on the top and bottom, respectively. Beam positions are indicated by N (northward),W (westward), S (southward), E (eastward), and Z (vertical, upward).average radiated power of the system are 1000 and 50kW, respectively. The antenna aperture is 8330 m:,providing a one-way beam width of 3.6- in half-powerwidth. This system makes it possible to steer the antenna beam up to 30- from the zenith in each interpulseperiod (IPP). The observations

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