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Guillermo A. Baigorria and James W. Jones

cities, agricultural lands, industry, and conservation areas. It is also needed to translate categorical forecasts of ENSO events into daily realizations of rainfall ( Podestá et al. 2002 ) or to downscale monthly rainfall forecasts from global or regional circulation models to daily rainfall inputs for crop simulation models ( Baigorria 2007 ; Hansen and Ines 2005 ). Rainfall events in most point-based weather generators, such as Weather Generator (WGEN) ( Richardson and Wright 1984 ), Long Ashton

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Katherine Dagon and Daniel P. Schrag

for increased longwave forcing from greenhouse gases. Both the physiological effect of CO 2 on vegetation and decreased solar radiation at the surface from SRM drive the climate response. Competing effects between water in plants, water in soils, and the atmospheric demand for water lead to regional and seasonal heterogeneities in the overall hydrologic response to SRM. These effects can vary only slightly but have the potential for significant consequences. 5. Conclusions In our study, SRM

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Kremena Darmenova, Duane Apling, Glenn Higgins, Philip Hayes, and Heather Kiley

’s advantages relative to other downscaling methods (i.e., spatial disaggregation or statistical downscaling) include resolving atmospheric processes on a finer scale (e.g., orographic effects in mountainous areas) and producing an output that is based on physical modeling of the related processes. Dynamical downscaling is computationally expensive, however, and regional climate model (RCM) simulations are usually performed for relatively short periods from a climatological perspective (i.e., 10–30 yr). The

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T. J. Shepherd, R. J. Barthelmie, and S. C. Pryor

. 2018b ). Thus, while some of the intra- and interannual variability in statewide net CF reported herein may reflect errors/omissions in the EIA-923 reports, variability of the wind climate provides an additional important caveat to comparison of modeled gross CF for the climate of 2008 and net CF for 2014–16 computed as described above. The effects of WT arrays on electrical power output (expressed as CF) and atmospheric conditions at the local to regional scale are quantified using pairwise (in

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Debasish PaiMazumder and Nicole Mölders

examined. The reasons differ for the different state variables and fluxes, with sometimes secondary effects involved. Historically the real network was designed to collect soil temperature measurements for agricultural purposes. Thus, its soil-type distribution is skewed toward more fertile soils than the soil-type distribution in the reference landscape. The differences in soil physical properties (e.g., heat capacity, conductivity) lead to systematic error in regional soil temperature averages

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John T. Abatzoglou, Kelly T. Redmond, and Laura M. Edwards

1. Introduction and motivation A current goal of applied climate science is to improve knowledge at regional and local levels. The smaller the scale at which such information can be provided, the greater the relevance to users for most applications. The state of California provides a distinct challenge against efforts to describe, monitor, and explain its temporal and spatial climatic characteristics. Large-scale features of the general circulation, including the semipermanent subtropical high

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M. Elyas Karim

depending on the features of specific local ecosystems. A model for tackling the effects of climate change should be pragmatic, efficient, flexible, inclusive, and applicable to each area. Permaculture has been proposed as a technique that meets these requirements, and its application to the MENA region is considered in the discussion below ( Leahy and Goforth 2014 , their Fig. 4). This paper takes a preliminary look at the role of climate change in MENA violence and the potential for redressing this

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Jin-Ming Feng, Yong-Li Wang, Zhu-Guo Ma, and Yong-He Liu

between 5 and 25 W m −2 in suburban areas. Block et al. (2004) investigated the principal effect of AHR on regional climate conditions in central Europe. The results revealed that temperature effects not only depended on the amount of added heat but also on orographic factors. Recently, several correlated works also focused on the global scale. Judging from the model simulations of the large-scale urban consumption of energy (LUCY), the global mean urban AHR had a diurnal range of 0.7–3.6 W m −2

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Jagabandhu Panda, Maithili Sharan, and S. G. Gopalakrishnan

case ( Fig. 17 ). The results also show variable winds in other places within the domain. A very careful examination indeed shows small pockets of local effects. Nevertheless, the prevailing relatively stronger stability on a winter day ( Fig. 8 ) inhibits the stronger local-scale flow and vertical motions. Consequently, land surface effects may not have a major influence on the regional-scale transport in this case. Sharan et al. (1996) have shown that at about 5 km above ground level, the

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Leif Enger and Michael Tjernström

FEBRUARY 199l LEIF ENGER AND MICHAEL TJERNSTR~M 227Estimating the Effects on the Regional Precipitation Climate in a Semiarid Region Caused by an Artificial Lake Using a Mesoscale Model LEIF ENGER AND MICHAEL TJERNSTROMDepartment of Meteorology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden(Manuscript received 25 January 1990, in final form 17 August 1990) ABSTRACT The effects on the

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