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Pavlos Kollias, Eugene E. Clothiaux, Thomas P. Ackerman, Bruce A. Albrecht, Kevin B. Widener, Ken P. Moran, Edward P. Luke, Karen L. Johnson, Nitin Bharadwaj, James B. Mead, Mark A. Miller, Johannes Verlinde, Roger T. Marchand, and Gerald G. Mace

consideration all of these effects, practical ground-based cloud radar systems operating at Ka band have the highest sensitivity, followed by W band. In contrast, weather radars, which are used to track precipitation, utilize long wavelengths because their beams must penetrate to far distances and their targets of interest are large, precipitating particles. Table 17-1 illustrates the range of centimeter- and millimeter-wavelength radars commonly used in the atmospheric sciences today, together with ways

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Kazuyoshi Oouchi and Masaki Satoh

association of SCCs with the equatorial (Kelvin) wave dynamics under the influence of tropical convection, and the importance of the Kelvin wave in SCC dynamics is well established by now. The major viewpoints include an instability of or interaction with the equatorial wave using a mechanistic model and a general circulation model with the parameterized effects of cumulus convection. There is extensive literature on this issue (e.g., Lau and Peng 1987 ; Takahashi 1987 ; Chang and Lim 1988 ; Numaguti

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Isaac M. Held

winds have a meridional structure, so if they strengthen then barotropic horizontal shears will strengthen throughout the troposphere even if we hold temperature gradients and thermal winds fixed. In addition to direct effects of these shears on upper-level wave breaking, they can interfere with baroclinic eddy production through the mechanism described in the papers cited above. The result is negative feedback that can potentially help control the equilibration of eddy amplitudes. 8. The E–P flux

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W.-K. Tao, Y. N. Takayabu, S. Lang, S. Shige, W. Olson, A. Hou, G. Skofronick-Jackson, X. Jiang, C. Zhang, W. Lau, T. Krishnamurti, D. Waliser, M. Grecu, P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, R. Houze, R. Kakar, K. Nakamura, S. Braun, S. Hagos, R. Oki, and A. Bhardwaj

, CSH, TRAIN, NCEP-2, JRA-25, ERA-40, and MERRA), while those from the soundings are purely total heating. For brevity, however, all the variables ( Q T , Q 1 , 9 and LH) are referred to as diabatic heating. 2) General characteristics Several tropical precipitation regions ( Fig. 2-6 ) were defined to facilitate discussions on regional heating characteristics. Global time means of tropical diabatic heating profiles can be perceived as averages over these regions (with LH dominating, suitable for

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

maps, air quality forecasts, information about the effects of air pollution on public health and the environment, and actions people can take to protect their own health and reduce pollution-forming emissions (adding to the value of the observations). In addition to improvements in geophysical observations, improving societal welfare requires interdisciplinary research on social, economic, and health activities related to climate and weather at local, regional, and global scales. For example

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Baode Chen, Wen-wen Tung, and Michio Yanai

will tend to be confined in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where zonal winds are weak easterly or westerly. Bennett and Young (1971) discussed in detail the effects of horizontal shear on the meridional propagation of disturbances. They pointed out that 1) disturbances with large eastward phase speeds cannot propagate into the tropics, 2) disturbances whose phase speeds coincide with the mean flow somewhere are absorbed at the critical latitude, and 3) disturbances with greater

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David S. Battisti, Daniel J. Vimont, and Benjamin P. Kirtman

4. However, the difference in ENSO variance in these multidecadal epochs was due to differences in the history of the uncoupled weather forcing that the ENSO mode experienced during those epochs ( Wittenberg et al. 2014 ) and not due to differences in the mean state; indeed, Atwood et al. (2017) showed that the mean state changes were likely due to the rectified effects of ENSO and worked to oppose the changes in ENSO variance. It is unclear whether nature can display a fourfold change in

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