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Nicole S. Hutton and Michael J. Allen

assessment. External contractors were called to two facilities to remediate and consult on electrical risks. Internal procedures were updated to reflect these remediation contracts. The other nursing home in Naples had not corrected the deficiencies by the date of the study, but the time limitation to do so had not expired. Although successful maintenance of life safety was not consistent within counties or even the same facility, nursing homes across the state supplemented internal capacity and

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Veronika Beck and Nikolai Dotzek

also referred to as “wind energy potential” or “loss potential”). Yet irrespective of the scale used to rate tornadoes and other damaging wind events, for their classification regarding peak wind speeds and spatiotemporal structure of the wind fields, methods have to be devised to reconstruct the near-surface wind fields. The strength of such wind field reconstructions is in aiding risk assessments by the insurance industry, emergency managers, or forest authorities (cf. Gardiner et al. 2009

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George Maier, Andrew Grundstein, Woncheol Jang, Chao Li, Luke P. Naeher, and Marshall Shepherd

western Russia caused large increases in mortality as well ( Dole et al. 2011 ), with some estimates indicating that excess mortality surpassed 15 000 ( Masters 2012 ). In many places, such as North America, extreme heat is the leading weather-related killer ( Pengelly et al. 2007 ). More people in the United States die annually from extreme heat than from hurricanes, lightning, tornadoes, floods, and earthquakes combined ( NWS 2012 ). Several factors may increase the risk for heat-related morbidity

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A. Bonazzi, A. L. Dobbin, J. K. Turner, P. S. Wilson, C. Mitas, and E. Bellone

: Improving multiseasonal forecasts of North Atlantic hurricane activity . J. Climate , 21 , 1209 – 1219 . Emanuel, K. , Ravela S. , Vivant E. , and Risi C. , 2006 : A statistical deterministic approach to hurricane risk assessment . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 87 , 299 – 314 . Emanuel, K. , Fondriest F. , and Kossin J. , 2012 : Potential economic value of seasonal hurricane forecasts . Wea. Climate Soc. , 4 , 110 – 117 . Goldenberg, S. B. , Landsea C. W. , Mestas-Nunez A. M

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Timothy Hall and Emmi Yonekura

1. Introduction Intense tropical cyclones (TCs) are among the most devastating natural phenomena. Estimating the potential for economic damage is a topic of high public interest and cuts across meteorology, climatology, and economics (e.g., Mendelsohn et al. 2012 ; Peduzzi et al. 2012 ). Landfall risk assessments are used by the insurance industry for setting rates and by governments for establishing building regulations and planning emergency procedures. Given the large coastal populations

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Jeffrey Czajkowski and James Done

. , Rosowsky D. V. , and Sparks P. R. , 2001 : Long-term hurricane risk assessment and expected damage to residential structures . Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. , 74 , 239 – 249 . ISO , cited 2013 : Property claims services. [Available online at http://www.iso.com/Products/Property-Claim-Services/Property-Claim-Services-PCS-info-on-losses-from-catastrophes.html .] Jagger, T. H. , Elsner J. B. , and Burch R. K. , 2011 : Climate and solar signals in property damage losses from hurricanes

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Chia-Ying Lee, Michael K. Tippett, Adam H. Sobel, and Suzana J. Camargo

. Meteor. Soc. , 89 , ES10 – ES20 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-89-5-Emanuel . Emanuel , K. A. , 2013 : Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 110 , 12 219 – 12 224 , doi: 10.1073/pnas.1301293110 . Emanuel , K. A. , S. Ravela , E. Vivant , and C. Risi , 2006 : A statistical deterministic approach to hurricane risk assessment . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 87 , 299 – 314 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-87

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Jessica Gartzke, Robert Knuteson, Grace Przybyl, Steven Ackerman, and Henry Revercomb

1. Introduction A “climatology” of radiosonde-derived indices provides a valuable historical context for the forecasting of severe weather. Relating this climatology to near-real-time observations from meteorological sensors on satellites could provide a valuable tool in assessing the risk of severe weather ( Doswell 2004 ; Breznitz 1984 ; Barnes et al. 2007 ; Golden and Adams 2000 ; Rothfusz et al. 2014 ; Cintineo et al. 2014 ). For example, convective available potential energy (CAPE) is

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Leon S. Robertson

-reviewed research indicates that increases in higher-weight vehicles on U.S roads produced more road deaths than would have been expected without them ( Anderson and Auffhammer 2014 ; Paulozzi 2005 ; White 2004 ). Occupants of heavier vehicles have reduced risk, but that is more than offset by increased risk to other road users. Yale University researchers recently concluded that CAFE standards had a net reducing effect on road deaths ( Bento et al. 2017 ). Greene (2018) reviewed the literature on vehicle

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Francesca Di Giuseppe, Florian Pappenberger, Fredrik Wetterhall, Blazej Krzeminski, Andrea Camia, Giorgio Libertá, and Jesus San Miguel

Australia, fires are recurrent hazards because of frequent severe drought conditions but also (as for West Africa) because of agriculture practice ( Swaine 1992 ). Fires also occur in wetter regions such as Southeast Asia (Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia) mostly during the dry period before the monsoon onset. Assessments of forest fire danger in countries with extensive forest cover have for decades relied on a combination of weather information and evaluation of the vegetation state ( Taylor and

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