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waters at the p i h i p a l river stations. It will be Seen that the rivers have generally rmged lower thanduring Septetnbcr, and a t Some stations have been reported as lower than usual a t thisseason 01' the year.E A R L Y F R O S T S ,The first frosts of the season were reported a t the following stations:October 1. Lexington, slight; Wytheville, light; Oswego, light. 6 . Toledo, heavy;Detroit, heavy; St. Paul, severe ; Leavenworth, heavy. 7. St. Louis, heavy ; Cincinnati,heavy ; Lexington, heavy

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general forecasts for the specific problems in his own region. During the past winter (December, 1918, to March, 1919, inclusive) the State forecasts were amplified a t the Salt Lake City ofice of the Bureau for the Bear River revion, and the coiiditions previiiling over the northwestern states were given to the officinls of the company by telephone each niorning for theiI consideration in the water regulation problem.THE COLORADO RIVER.By FREDERICK H. BRANDENBURG, District Forecaster.[Dated: Weather

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;h,were over twenty feet above low-water.The lowest fall of the Ohio \V;LS on the l2th, when at Cincinnati it was S feet;that of the hfississippi OIL the 19t,h, a t Cairo, G fcet G inches ; that of tlic Red river onthe 20tl1, at Shrcveport, (i feet 3 inches.The Missouri reached its highest between the 20th arid 27th.llie display of nuroras in thc Lake region does not seein to have been as frequc1i1,or ns brilliant as usual ; nor have the Novembcr cyclonic disturbaims beer1 as numerous or :is niarlrcd as

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Jennifer C. Adam and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

seasonality. In general, the largest increases have been observed during the cold season, which is also the season of low flow (October–April), while the spring snowmelt peak has shifted earlier ( Georgievskii et al. 1996 ; Yang et al. 2004a , b ; Yang et al. 2002 ), although this is not the case for all rivers. Changes in other seasons are generally less robust; for the Lena and Ob’ River basins, summer discharges have slightly increased, whereas fall discharges have slightly decreased ( Yang et al

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Declan Conway, Aurelie Persechino, Sandra Ardoin-Bardin, Hamisai Hamandawana, Claudine Dieulin, and Gil Mahé

1. Introduction a. The significance of water resources variability in Africa Rainfall and river flows in Africa display high levels of variability across a range of spatial and temporal scales, with important consequences for the management of water resource systems ( Sutcliffe and Knott 1987 ; Grove 1996 ; Laraque et al. 2001 ; Conway 2002 ; Ogutunde et al. 2006 ; Hamandawana 2007 ). Throughout Africa, this variability brings significant implications for society and causes widespread

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Aiguo Dai, Taotao Qian, Kevin E. Trenberth, and John D. Milliman

1. Introduction Continental freshwater runoff or discharge is an important part of the global water cycle ( Trenberth et al. 2007 ). Precipitation over continents partly comes from water evaporated from the oceans, and streamflow returns this water back to the seas, thereby maintaining a long-term balance of freshwater in the oceans. The discharge from rivers also brings large amounts of particulate and dissolved minerals and nutrients to the oceans (e.g., Boyer et al. 2006 ); thus it also

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Herbert Riehl, Mohamed El-Bakry, and José Meitín

1546 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 107Nile River Discharge HERBERT RI-HLNational Center for Atmospheric Research,~ Boulder, CO 80307 MOHAMED EL-BAKRYThe Meteorological Authority of Egypt. Cairo, Egypt ]OSf~ MEITINNational Center for Atmospheric Research, ~ Boulder, CO 80307(Manuscript received 12 February 1979, in final form 3 July 1979

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Kevin Werner and Kristen Yeager

1. Introduction This paper describes the 2011 peak streamflows in the Colorado basin and the Great Basin in an attempt to illuminate the forecasting efforts of the NOAA Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). A recent National Research Council (2012) report highlighted the difficulties in transferring research results into operational river forecasting as a major impediment to improving forecasts. The primary goal of this paper is to highlight three areas where research is most needed

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Shenn-Yu Chao

72 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 18River-Forced Estuarine Plumes* SHENN-YU CHAOHorn Point Environmental Laboratories, Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies, University of Maryland, Cambridge, Maryland (Manuscript received 26 March 1987, in final form 27 July 1987) The development, maintenance, and dissipation of river-forced estuarine plumes

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James R. Miller, Gary L. Russell, and Guilherme Caliri

914 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME7Continental-Scale River Flow in Climate Models JAMES R. MILLERDepartment of Marine and Coastal Sciences. Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey GARY L. RUSSELLNASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York GUILHERME CALIRIHughes STX Corporation, New York

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