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Fabienne Gaillard, Thierry Reynaud, Virginie Thierry, Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, and Karina von Schuckmann

://www.oceansites.org/ ). However, most measurements were restricted to the tropical band or to the near-surface layers or reported only temperature. In the 2000s, the Argo array of profiling floats extended the concept of systematic observation to the full range of latitudes and toward deeper levels (2000 m), with equal sampling in temperature and salinity ( Freeland et al. 2010 ), and Argo has now become the core of the ocean in situ observing network ( http://www.jcommops.org/argo ). These networks monitor the upper limb of

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Xiaojun Yuan and Lynne D. Talley

1302 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUM-22Shallow Salinity Minima in the North Pacific XIAOJUN YUAN AND LYNNE D. TALLEYScripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California(Manuscript received 28 November 1990, in final form 18 February 1992) CTD/STD data from 24 cruises in the North Pacific are studied for their vertical salinity structure andcompared to bottle observations. A

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Kyla Drushka, William E. Asher, Janet Sprintall, Sarah T. Gille, and Clifford Hoang

1. Introduction Salinity varies over a range of horizontal scales due to oceanic dynamics and surface forcing from river runoff, evaporation, precipitation, and freezing/thawing of ice. The primary focus of this paper is submesoscale (defined here as smaller than 20 km) horizontal surface salinity variability, which affects density variability and therefore ocean dynamics. Submesoscale density fronts are often associated with strong vertical velocities in the mixed layer and thus can drive

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Niklas Schneider, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, and Pearn P. Niiler

interannual to decadal variability of salinity in the California Current off southern California is investigated. The California Current system varies on multiple time scales and reflects mesoscale processes, seasonal forcing, and remote forcing. Variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level has been documented in a number of studies, and consistent relationships with local and remote forcing have been established. Changes of salinity, however, have received only intermittent attention, and

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Zoltan B. Szuts and Chris Meinen

1. Introduction Ocean circulation is driven in part by inhomogeneous evaporation and precipitation at the surface, which oceanic freshwater fluxes act to balance on a global scale. Perturbations in the mean freshwater flux, such as “Great Salinity Anomalies” in the subpolar North Atlantic ( Belkin et al. 1998 ), can influence the buoyancy-driven circulation ( Curry et al. 1998 ) and are a primary source for long periods of fluctuations of overturning strength ( Biastoch et al. 2009 ; Beal et

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K. Haines, J. D. Blower, J-P. Drecourt, C. Liu, A. Vidard, I. Astin, and X. Zhou

1. Introduction As more salinity observations become available from Argo floats ( Roemmich et al. 2001 ), it is becoming more important to develop methods to assimilate salinity profile data into ocean circulation models. Representing the salinity field correctly in ocean models is important in a number of contexts. Salinity has an impact on the density field and hence on ocean currents and transports (e.g., Cooper 1988 ; Roemmich et al. 1994 ; Vialard and Delecluse 1998a , b ). Salinity is

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G. Reverdin, S. Morisset, J. Boutin, N. Martin, M. Sena-Martins, F. Gaillard, P. Blouch, J. Rolland, J. Font, J. Salvador, P. Fernández, and D. Stammer

1. Introduction Near-surface salinity is largely determined by the global hydrological cycle as well as by the oceanographic circulation and vertical mixing processes ( Schmitt 2008 ). Sparse near-surface salinity observations have been used to detect signatures associated with known modes of climate variability [ Cravatte et al. (2009) ; Singh and Delacroix (2011) in the tropical Pacific; Gordon and Giulivi (2008) for the tropical North Atlantic; and Reverdin (2010) in the North Atlantic

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C. E. Knowles

AvuL1974 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 275Salinity Determination from Use of CTD Sensors C. E. KNOWLESDept. of G~oscicnces, Nortl~ Carolina State University, Raleigh 2760710 August 1973 and 4 December 1973ABSTRACT To convert the specific conductance C(S,t,p) measured by an in situ CTD sensor to salinity in a mannerconsistent with the international standard expression proposed by Cox et al., it

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Jonathan P. Fram, Maureen A. Martin, and Mark T. Stacey

1. Introduction Many estuaries are characterized by a bathymetric constriction at their mouth that impedes exchange with the coastal ocean. The net exchange of a scalar, such as salt, chlorophyll, or suspended solids, influences conditions along the axis of the estuarine ecosystem, as well as in the adjoining coastal ecosystem. The tidally averaged salinity field in a coastal estuary is classically described by a combination of two tidally averaged independent processes: gravitational

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William J. Emery

MARCa1977 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 293NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEThe Errors Involved in Inferring Salinity from Sound Velocity WILLIAM J. EMERYDepartment of Oceanography, T~xas A(eM University, College Station 77843 12 August 1976 and 6 December 1976ABSTRACT Four empirical equations relating sound velocity, salinity, temperature and pressure are examined todetermine the errors in

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