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Ronald Sequeira and Dinkar Kelkar

: The Soils of Iran. Food and Agricultural Organization, UNESCO, Rom~, 319 pp.Eriksson, E., 1958: The chemical climate and saline soils in the. arid zone. Arid Zone Research, X. Climatology, UNESCO, Paris, 147-180 pp. , 1960: The yearly circulation of chloride and sulfur in ' nature--meteorological, geochemical and pedologicai implica tions. Part I. Tellus, II, 375-403.Fairbridge, R. W., Ed., 1966: The Encyclopedia of Oceanography. Reinhold, 1021 pp.Glass, S. J., and M. J. Matteson, 1973

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M. A. Shapiro and J. T. Hastings

over-approximations to the magnitudeof the observed wind velocity and its vertical shear,respectively.b. Oceanic Gulf Stream section, 1100 GMT 17 May 1953 The oceanic counterpart of atmospheric conservation of potential temperature is one of conservationof density. In addition, except on small scales, boththe vertical distribution of atmospheric potential temperature and oceanic density are single-valued functions. If the variation of ocean salinity is neglected,then ocean temperature becomes

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Michael A. Bilello

) used it asa function of the air temperature. In a later report hecompared the correlation between seadce formation andair temperature with that between sea-ice formationand sea-surface temperature and found the correlationcoefficients to be similar (Rodhe, 1955). Rodhe studied the Baltic Sea and he assumed that thebrackish water freezes at about 0C. Since this paperdeals with fresh water lakes and rivers a freezing pointof 0C is also used. If sea-ice of normal salinity wereunder study the

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Joanne Simpson

process of utilizing solar energy. If thiswater is warmed to a temperature 2-3-C cooler thanambient st/rface waters, its density deficiency contributed by lower salinity may keep it marginallybuoyant. If a greater negative temperature anomalyis desired, the OTEC-produced oxygen could be usedto produce a bubble sheet helping to bring cool discharge water continuously to the surface? Another possibility to cool sea surface waters ispresently in the discussion stages. The Arabian gowernment (Simpson

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William P. Henry and John J. Cassidy

, 21-23.Hurst, H. E., 1951: Long term capacity of reservoirs. Trans. Amer. Soc. Civil Eng., 116, 770-799.Erosion, sedimentation and debris control, Master plan for flood control and drainage 1975: Fairfax County, VA.Jensen, A. R., 1976: Computer simulation of surface water hydrology and salinity with an application to studies of Colorado River management. Environ. Quality Lab. Rep. No. 12, California Institute of Technology.Kidson, J. W., 1975: Eigenvector analysis of monthly mean

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Friedrich Obleitner

the GvNregion on the days immediately before turbidity measurements. With the intrusion of maritime air in cyclonic storms, aerosols dominated by sea salt and sulfate components are likely to arrive the GvN region ina more or less aged mode. Rime deposi~ted during particular storms even tasted saline. Modification dependsmainly on the distance from source regions, as well ason meteorological and sea-ice condition,s during transport. Summarizing, the observed summer increase ofMie particle

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Sungwook Hong and Inchul Shin

SWS have a low bias (<0.25 m s −1 ) and RMSE (<0.6 m s −1 ). A study of the TAO buoy SWSs and the retrieved SWSs for the tropical Pacific region still provides a low bias (<0.45 m s −1 ) and RMSE (<0.5 m s −1 ). Therefore, the proposed algorithm can retrieve the SWS accurately if the ocean surface emissivity is estimated with reasonable accuracy. The proposed algorithm could also be applied to the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity 1.4-GHz radiometer for measurement of a wide

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Eric A. Smith, F. Joseph Turk, Michael R. Farrar, Alberto Mugnai, and Xuwu Xiang

study, we place special emphasis upon modeling the wind-roughened ocean surface to examine T B response to variations in sea surface temperature and surface wind speed ( U ). In doing so, we use a surface emissivity model that is a function of frequency, view angle, salinity, and U. The radar-based, single-frequency SRT, which is used in radar rain retrieval at the higher attenuating frequencies, is based on the difference between a climatologically defined rain-free ocean surface cross section

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Alberto Mugnai and Eric A. Smith

summarizes their relevant characteristics, while Fig. 9 illustrates the concentration spectraas a function of crystal length.c. Surface boundary conditions Surface emittance is a key parameter in microwaveradiometry because the radiation emitted and reflectedby the underlying surface may significantly contributeto the emerging radiances. Microwave surface emittance is highly dependent on wavelength, angle of view,the type of surface, and its physical conditions. Surfacetemperature, roughness, salinity

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Alexander Gavrikov, Sergey K. Gulev, Margarita Markina, Natalia Tilinina, Polina Verezemskaya, Bernard Barnier, Ambroise Dufour, Olga Zolina, Yulia Zyulyaeva, Mikhail Krinitskiy, Ivan Okhlopkov, and Alexey Sokov

.g., Sérazin et al. 2018 ; Hewitt et al. 2016 ) and process studies (e.g., Akuetevi et al. 2016 ). At the open northern and southern boundaries as well as at the western boundary of Hudson Bay, the model is driven by monthly mean temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea ice from the Global Ocean Reanalysis Simulation (GLORYS12), version 4 (v4) ( Garric and Parent 2018 ). The model was tested in a set of sensitivity experiments and validated against the high-resolution the 1/12° GLORYS12 reanalysis of the

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