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Camille Li, David S. Battisti, and Cecilia M. Bitz

1. Introduction Sea ice is an important element in the glacial climate system because of its pivotal role in the surface heat, moisture, and momentum budgets of the polar regions. The presence of sea ice lowers surface temperature by insulating the atmosphere from the ocean heat reservoir and by increasing surface albedo. Sea ice also affects the vertical structure of the upper ocean, alters deep-water formation sites, and regulates the availability of moisture for building continental ice

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Till J. W. Wagner and Ian Eisenman

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice is undergoing a striking, closely monitored, and highly publicized decline. A recurring theme in the debate surrounding this decline is the question of how stable the ice cover is, and specifically whether it can become unstable. This question is often linked to the ice–albedo feedback, which is expected to play a key role in the observed sea ice retreat. The ice–albedo feedback has been studied since at least the nineteenth century, when Croll (1875

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N. Joss Matthewman and Gudrun Magnusdottir

with the WP pattern have a characteristically short time scale of approximately 7.4 days, slightly shorter than the 9.5-day time scale of its Atlantic sector counterpart, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ( Feldstein 2000 ). Sea ice variability in the Pacific sector is primarily confined to the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk, with the leading mode appearing as a dipole in sea ice concentration between seas ( Cavalieri and Parkinson 1987 ; Fang and Wallace 1994 ; Liu et al. 2007 ; Ukita et al

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Erica Rosenblum and Ian Eisenman

fall within the range of the ensemble of simulations. Modeling groups from around the world have contributed to each phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). In the third phase (CMIP3; Meehl et al. 2007 ), virtually none of the models simulated a summer Arctic sea ice cover that diminished as fast as in the observations under historical natural and anthropogenic climate forcing ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ). However, Stroeve et al. (2007) suggested the possibility that the observed

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Arlan Dirkson, William J. Merryfield, and Adam Monahan

1. Introduction Seasonal forecasting of Arctic sea ice has received increased attention in recent years because of a growing demand for forecasts from an array of stakeholders. This demand has grown largely as a result of the increased access to Arctic waterways ( Ellis and Brigham 2009 ), owing to the reduction in sea ice coverage, which is most prominent in the summer months ( Serreze et al. 2007 ). The overall negative trend in pan-Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) is consistent with climate

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Yongli Zhang, Hao Wei, Youyu Lu, Xiaofan Luo, Xianmin Hu, and Wei Zhao

1. Introduction Since 1979, satellite observations have revealed significant variations of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean including the Beaufort Sea (BS; Rigor and Wallace 2004 ; Babb et al. 2016 ; Howell et al. 2016 ; Babb et al. 2019 ). Starting from the mid-1990s, the summer (September) ice edge in the Beaufort Sea has retreated northward rapidly ( Stroeve et al. 2005 ; Maslanik et al. 2007 ; Onarheim et al. 2018 ), accompanied with a sharp decrease in the coverage of multiyear ice (MYI

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Sungwook Hong and Inchul Shin

1. Introduction Sea ice is one of the most important parameters of the global climate system and covers a significant portion of the global oceans. Sea ice with its snow cover is an effective insulator that limits the exchange of energy and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere ( Comiso et al. 2003 ). Satellite-board passive microwave sensors ( Zwally et al. 1983 ; Parkinson et al. 1987 ; Gloersen et al. 1992 ) have been observing global sea ice comprehensively and consistently. The

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James A. Renwick, Alison Kohout, and Sam Dean

1. Introduction The annual cycle of Antarctic sea ice extent is one of the largest seasonal variations on Earth. The maximum areal extent varies by a factor of 5, from ~4 million km 2 in late summer to ~19 million km 2 in late winter, effectively doubling the ice-covered area of Antarctica from minimum to maximum extent ( Thomas and Dieckmann 2003 ; Wadhams 2000 ). Moreover, sea ice in the Antarctic grows around the perimeter of a continent, unconstrained in the equatorward direction by any

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Jerry X. Mitrovica, Carling C. Hay, Robert E. Kopp, Christopher Harig, and Konstantin Latychev

1. Introduction A number of factors contribute to the geographic variability of sea level change, including changes in ocean dynamics, thermosteric effects, land water storage, local vertical land movement due to tectonics and sediment compaction, and the melting of glaciers and ice sheets ( Milne et al. 2009 ), all of which are superimposed on large-scale, long-term geographic trends associated with ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment ( Peltier 2004 ; Lambeck et al. 2014 ). The impact of

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Xiaodan Chen, Dehai Luo, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

1. Introduction Over the past decade, Arctic sea ice extent has been observed to undergo a marked decline since the early 2000s ( Comiso 2006 ; Francis and Hunter 2007 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010a , b ; Simmonds 2015 ). Because Northern Hemisphere midlatitude extreme cold events in winter ( Screen and Simmonds 2013a , b ; Cohen et al. 2014 ), habitat ecosystems ( Forbes et al. 2016 ), and increased coastal erosion and changes to the ocean circulation have been shown to be closely related to

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