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Simon R. Osborne and Graham P. Weedon

5d(1) considers how observed and modeled soil moisture responds to rainfall after drought. The final results in section 5d(2) considers bare-soil evaporation after rainfall on to dry ground. 2. Field site and instrumentation The Met Office research site at Cardington (52.105°N, 0.424°E, 29 m above sea level) has been making continuous subsoil and near-surface meteorological observations since 1995. The 18-ha site is laid mainly to manicured grass kept at 5–10-cm height throughout the year

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Shanshui Yuan, Laiyin Zhu, and Steven M. Quiring

cell (0.1° spatial resolution) and (b) cumulative distribution functions of gauge observation (blue), TMPA (red), regridded IMERG (yellow), and original IMERG (purple). Other theoretical reasons, such as extended microwave channels (up to 183 GHz) and more accurate reference data, may also improve the performance of IMERG on capturing TCP. For example, the newly added 89-GHz channel has been approved to better capture the ice scattering signals related to stratiform precipitation at inner core of

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Timothy J. Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

relative importance of warm-rain versus ice-based microphysical processes in NAME convection. Does this vary by terrain, particularly land versus sea? Further, do disturbed meteorological regimes significantly affect convective microphysics, relative to convection during undisturbed periods? Do these regime differences vary by terrain as well? Based on NAME thermodynamic analyses, Johnson et al. (2007 , 2010) demonstrated gradual deepening of convection over the land throughout the day, while the

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Keah C. Schuenemann, John J. Cassano, and Joel Finnis

potential to raise sea level by 7.2 m ( Church et al. 2001 ) on a millennial time scale ( Alley et al. 2007b ). The ice sheet is maintained by input from precipitation nearly balancing output from evaporation, sublimation, melt, and ice discharge from glaciers ( Rignot and Thomas 2002 ). Recent changes of the GrIS include not only a thickening of the interior of the ice sheet but also a thinning along the edges ( Thomas et al. 2006 ; Alley et al. 2007a ). The most recent analyses have shown an overall

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Sebastian H. Mernild, Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, and Konrad Steffen

) play an important role in determining the global ocean thermohaline circulation, salinity, ice sea dynamics ( Broecker et al. 1985 ; Broecker and Denton 1990 ; Su et al. 2006 ), global sea level rise ( Dowdeswell et al. 1997 ; ACIA 2005 ; Box et al. 2006 ), and plans for hydroelectric power schemes ( Hock and Jansson 2005 ; Mernild and Hasholt 2006 ), as well as the influx of sediment and nutrients to the ocean ( Rysgaard et al. 2003 ; Hasholt et al. 2006 ). Rough terrain, harsh climatic

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Simon Schick, Ole Rössler, and Rolf Weingartner

1. Introduction Subseasonal and seasonal forecasts of environmental conditions are increasingly based on numerically coupled models of the various Earth system components. These include general circulation models of the atmosphere and oceans and dynamical land surface or sea ice models ( National Academies 2016 ). Such forecast systems represent diverse physical, chemical, and biological processes and continuously progress toward Earth system models (ESMs). However, not all environmental

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Sebastian H. Mernild, Glen E. Liston, Bent Hasholt, and Niels T. Knudsen

al. 2003 ). Because of our lack of information regarding the timing of possible sea ice formation within the simulation domain, all fjord areas within the domain were excluded from the model simulations ( Fig. 1c ). Model parameter values used in the simulations are provided in Table 3 [see Liston and Sturm (1998) for parameter definitions]. Wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and relative humidity were recorded at 2- and 4-m levels every 3 h at Station Nunatak and Station Coast

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Vladimir M. Kattsov, John E. Walsh, William L. Chapman, Veronika A. Govorkova, Tatyana V. Pavlova, and Xiangdong Zhang

the difference between precipitation ( P ) and evaporation (evapotranspiration) ( E ) over the Arctic Ocean and the terrestrial watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean. A change of this freshwater supply has potentially important implications for the Arctic Ocean’s stratification, for its sea ice regime, and for its freshwater export to the North Atlantic. To the extent that deep oceanic convection in the North Atlantic is affected by the freshwater capping provided by Arctic Ocean export, the

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Murray D. MacKay, Diana L. Verseghy, Vincent Fortin, and Michael D. Rennie

the temperature of maximum density . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 11 , 1516 – 1533 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1981)011<1516:WMARIA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1981)011<1516:WMARIA>2.0.CO;2 Flato , G. M. , and R. D. Brown , 1996 : Variability and climate sensitivity of landfast Arctic sea ice . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 25 767 – 25 777 , doi: 10.1029/96JC02431 . 10.1029/96JC02431 Fortin , V. , M. Jean , R. Brown , and S. Payette , 2015a : Predicting snow depth in a forest–tundra landscape

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Osama Ali Maher, Cintia Bertacchi Uvo, and Lars Bengtsson

of the sea level air pressure measured at a meteorological station close to the center of the Azores high (Lisbon, Gibraltar, or Azores) and measured at a station in Iceland ( Hurrell 1995 ). Positive winter values of NAOI correspond to a strong meridional pressure gradient, which is associated with strong westerly winds that transports warm, moist maritime air across northern Europe, giving rise to mild, wet winters ( Straile et al. 2003 ). In contrast, low NAOI values correspond to weak

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