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Matthew H. Hitchman and Amihan S. Huesmann

statistics have been calculated for various locations and seasons by Baldwin and Holton (1988) , Peters and Waugh (1996 , 2003 ), Postel and Hitchman (1999 , 2001 ), Waugh and Polvani (2000) , Knox and Harvey (2005) , Berrisford et al. (2007) , and Martius et al. (2007) . Hitchman and Huesmann (2007 , hereafter HH07 ) provided a seasonal climatology of RWB statistics throughout the 330–2000-K layer. HH07 showed a striking structure at the equator: a strong PV gradient occurs in each season

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Bo Qiu, Robert B. Scott, and Shuiming Chen

this interaction contributes to the flow of various length scales. An example of this limited understanding is well illustrated in the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) bands of the South and North Pacific Oceans. In these bands of the wind-driven subtropical gyres, elevated eddy kinetic energy (EKE) level has been observed to modulate seasonally with an EKE peak appearing in the local spring season: April–May in the North Pacific STCC band and November–December in the South Pacific STCC band (see

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Kanako Sato and Toshio Suga

the anomaly to denser regions through diapycnal fluxes. While previous studies have revealed a number of interesting features of SPESTMW, as described above, a full picture of SPESTMW that integrates all these features, including the seasonal evolution of its spatial extent and properties, has not yet been presented. This is because the data available to previous studies were spatially and temporally limited. For example, the vigorous vertical diffusion of the temperature–salinity anomaly

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Cheng Qian and Xuebin Zhang

1. Introduction The annual cycle is the dominant component for many climate variables outside the tropics. The annual cycle of surface temperature is extremely large, accounting for up to more than 90% of the total variance in mid–high-latitude land areas (e.g., Thomson 1995 ; Qian et al. 2011 ; Qian and Zhang 2015 ). Changes in the amplitude of the annual cycle (also known as seasonality or the annual range) of land surface temperature have been reported and are gaining increasing interest

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Mick Pope, Christian Jakob, and Michael J. Reeder

to remove the effects of the seasonal cycle. Pressure anomalies are shown every 0.5 hPa and wind anomalies every 0.5 m s −1 . The mean pattern for September–April ( Fig. 7f ) shows a heat low located over continental northwest Australia, with a trough extending down the west coast. A weaker inland trough is found over eastern Australia. Southeasterly trade winds occur over the Indian Ocean and Coral Sea, with light winds equatorward of 5°S. The monsoon trough is not evident in the September

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Valentin Louf, Olivier Pujol, and Henri Sauvageot

frequently observed with coastal radars ( Brooks et al. 1999 ; Bech et al. 2000 ; Atkinson and Zhu 2006 ; Mesnard and Sauvageot 2010 ; Haack et al. 2010 ; Chang and Lin 2011 ). Recently, Ding et al. (2013) have observed ducting at the periphery of a tropical cyclone over the western North Pacific Ocean. Concerning continental areas, there are few AP studies. Using a 16-yr record of operational sounding data, Steiner and Smith (2002) presented a seasonal climatology of the various regimes of

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V. Misra and J.-P. Michael

65 of these had the temperature records for the same overlapping period in all three datasets with missing data that did not stretch more than 3 years in a row. The missing data were linearly interpolated. The trends were computed on the seasonal means, and therefore, the filling of the missing data for such short time periods with linear interpolation did not have a significant impact. The COOP data are available from the NCDC and are quality controlled, monthly mean T max and T min from

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Sven Kotlarski, Frank Paul, and Daniela Jacob

RCM results to the target resolution of the MBM and could optionally also correct for systematic errors in the RCM output. Once this interface has been set up, the effects of regional climatic changes on glacier mass balance can be assessed in a straightforward way. The present study, consisting of two separate parts, investigates the benefits and the limitations of forcing a distributed glacier mass balance model with the output of a state-of-the-art RCM. For this purpose, a test site in the

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Shuyan Liu and Xin-Zhong Liang

, 555 – 581 . Ramanathan , V. , and Coauthors , 2001 : Indian Ocean experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze. J. Geophys. Res. , 106 , 28371 – 28398 . Randall , D. A. , J. A. Abeles , and T. G. Corsetti , 1985 : Seasonal simulations of the planetary boundary layer and boundary-layer stratocumulus clouds with a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci. , 42 , 641 – 676 . Raschke , E. , and Coauthors , 2001 : The Baltic

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Jiamin Li and Chenghai Wang

the effects of heat (radiation) and dynamics (wind speed) on evaporation, as shown in Eq. (1) : (1) PE = Δ Δ + γ ⁡ ( R n ) λ + γ Δ + γ 6.43 ⁡ ( f u ) D λ , where PE is the potential open-water evaporation (mm day −1 ); R n is the net radiation at the surface (MJ m day −1 ); Δ is the slope of the saturation vapor pressure curve (kPa °C −1 ); γ is the psychrometric coefficient (kPa °C −1 ); λ is the latent heat of vaporization (MJ kg −1 ); f u is the wind function; and D is the vapor

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