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R. H. Moss, S. Avery, K. Baja, M. Burkett, A. M. Chischilly, J. Dell, P. A. Fleming, K. Geil, K. Jacobs, A. Jones, K. Knowlton, J. Koh, M. C. Lemos, J. Melillo, R. Pandya, T. C. Richmond, L. Scarlett, J. Snyder, M. Stults, A. M. Waple, J. Whitehead, D. Zarrilli, B. M. Ayyub, J. Fox, A. Ganguly, L. Joppa, S. Julius, P. Kirshen, R. Kreutter, A. McGovern, R. Meyer, J. Neumann, W. Solecki, J. Smith, P. Tissot, G. Yohe, and R. Zimmerman

1. Focus and origins of this report Damages and loss of life occurring across the United States from recent floods, wildfires, and heat waves demonstrate the growing risks associated with climate change. The impacts vary from place to place and across diverse communities with different vulnerabilities and capacities to respond. Media attention largely focuses on the costly impacts of more frequent and/or severe extreme events. But slower-onset changes in conditions such as higher nighttime

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Jason Naylor and Aaron Sexton

damage in the United States ( Smith and Katz 2013 ). Because of the strong societal impact, it is important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of damaging severe weather events. The climatology of severe weather in the United States has been studied extensively. Tornadoes (and tornadic environments) are most frequent across the Great Plains (e.g., Brooks et al. 2003 ) while large hail events are most common in the High Plains region (e.g., Doswell et al. 2005 ; Cintineo et al

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Kimberly S. Wolske, Laura V. Rasmussen, James C. Arnott, Margaret Kalcic, and Christine J. Kirchhoff

1. Introduction Current and future impacts of climate change underscore the need for climate information to support societal responses ( Moss et al. 2013 ). Meeting this societal need for information is nontrivial as traditional ways to produce and communicate science often fail to yield usable knowledge to meet users’ needs ( Kirchhoff et al. 2013 ). Engagement with practitioners in the process of creating climate information is believed to accelerate the production of usable knowledge. While

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Vasubandhu Misra, Tracy Irani, Lisette Staal, Kevin Morris, Tirusew Asefa, Chris Martinez, and Wendy Graham

, evapotranspiration increases with temperature. Therefore, the impact of increasing temperature from climate change can have significant impact in the hydrologic water balance and water availability for public supply in Florida. Prior to the inception of Florida Water and Climate Alliance (FloridaWCA), survey results in the tri-state region of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida indicated a significant lack of use and awareness of seasonal climate and drought forecast information by water resource managers ( Bolson et

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Daniel Tobin, Rama Radhakrishna, Allison Chatrchyan, and Shorna B. Allred

determining factors that motivate farmers and natural resource managers to adapt to or mitigate climate change differ. Haden et al. (2012) found farmers often took mitigative action when they were broadly concerned about the long-term and societal impacts of climate change, while worries about local impacts often motivated adaptation. Therefore, identifying whether research and programs are intended to encourage adaptation and/or mitigation is necessary to ensure that those activities are well conceived

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Alan W. Black and Thomas L. Mote

1. Introduction Winter precipitation such as snow, sleet, and freezing rain is a hazard that can have a disruptive effect on human lives. One of the greatest impacts of these storms is on travel by both vehicles and aircraft. Poor road conditions and reduced visibility during winter precipitation can lead to motor vehicle collisions, while reduced visibility or flight through winter precipitation can lead to aircraft crashes. Previous research has estimated that 30–40 ( Changnon 2007 ) or as

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Zack Guido, Valerie Rountree, Christina Greene, Andrea Gerlak, and Adrian Trotman

and information to specific decision-makers often in the form of tools, products, websites, or bulletins ( Vaughan and Dessai 2014 ), offer the potential to help society cope with and adapt to these and other impacts by facilitating the incorporation of science-based information and prediction into policy and practice ( WMO 2009 , p. 162). There is wide recognition that climate conditions—most notably anomalies associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)—shift precipitation and

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Shannon M. McNeeley and Heather Lazrus

that express different collective “voices” or perspectives about natural resource management ( Thompson and Rayner 1998 ). By institutional cultures we mean the preferences and priorities that are determined by how an institution is socially organized ( section 2 ). We define climate change adaptation as collective, strategic, purposive behavior in response to or anticipation of climate change risks and impacts ( Bennett 1976 ; Smithers and Smit 1997 ). While adaptation happens across geopolitical

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Lars Böcker and Sofia Thorsson

1. Background Recently, scholars and policy makers have shown increasing interest in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Although large uncertainties and regional variations exist, climate changes (i.e., overall warmer temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns) have been projected and can already be observed today (e.g., Stocker et al. 2013 ). These weather changes are expected to have an impact on daily lives, especially those aspects that take place outdoors. One sector that

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Jen Henderson, Erik R. Nielsen, Gregory R. Herman, and Russ S. Schumacher

, however briefly, potential impacts of TORFFs on a vulnerable public. Fig . 2. (a),(c) Radar reflectivity and(b),(d) velocity for Telmin valid for the late March TORFF event. In (a) and (b) the broad convective element responsible for producing the tornado and flash flooding is shown. In (c) and (d) a zoomed in version of (a) and (b) is shown, respectively, highlighting part of the overlapping tornado (red) and flash flood (green) polygons where the tornado and flash flooding co-occurred. The white

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