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T. N. Krishnamurti, S. K. Roy Bhowmik, Darlene Oosterhof, Gregg Rohaly, and Naomi Surgi

SEPTEMBER 1995 KRISHNAMURTI ET AL. 2771Mesoscale Signatures within the Tropics Generated by Physical InitializationT. N. KRISHNAMURTI, S. K. ROY BHOWMIK, DARLENE OOSTERHOF, AND GREGG ROHALY Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida NAOMI SURGINational Hurricane Center, Coral Gables, Florida(Manuscript received 1 December 1994, in final

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Murry L. Salby and Harry H. Hendon

I AUGUST 1994 SALBY AND HENDON 2207Intraseasonal Behavior of Clouds, Temperature, and Motion in the Tropics MURRY L. SALBY AND HARRY H. HENDONCenter for Atmospheric Theory and Analysis, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado(Manuscript received 19 March 1993, in final form 11 October 1993)ABSTRACT The spectral character of tropical convection is investigated in an 11 -yr record of

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Thomas R. Heddinghaus and Arthur F. Krueger

study thedistribution of cloudiness and rainfall over the tropics. Annual and interannual variations aredescribed, part/ally with the help of an eigenvector analysis. Interannual variations in the outgoinglongwave radiation are particularly interesting since they tend to follow the Southern Osdllafion. Consequently, it can be used to monitor changes in the large:scale circulation over the tropics.1. Introduction Recently, an earth radiation budget data set thatwas obtained from the NOAA

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JUNE, 1912. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW. 969HAIL IN T m TROPICS.The followin note regarding the occurrence of hail onNaos Island, 8 anal Zone, is extracted from the Canal Record of July 3, 1912:During the rain and wind squall along the Pacific coast, Saturday afternoon, June 15, the wind reached a maximum velocity of 50 miles an hour from the south at Sosit, and 33 miles from the south at Ancon. During this s uall hail was reported on N:tos Island. This i R the third time during txe past six years

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Ian Folkins

the likelihood of a rain shaft reaching the surface, and increases the out-of-cloud rain fraction. Figure 11 shows the vertical variation in the in-cloud and out-of-cloud rain. The ratio of out-of-cloud to in-cloud rain is roughly 1:3. Measurements from TRMM show that the proportion of stratiform to convective rain in the tropics between 2 and 4 km is roughly one to one ( Takayabu 2002 ). This comparison suggests that the model underestimates out-of-cloud rain. f. Diurnal cycle The model

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Edmund K. M. Chang

1. Introduction Chang (1995, hereafter C95) studied the influence of Hadley circulation intensity changes on extratropical climate using an idealized model. The results suggested that increasing the intensity of the Hadley circulation by latitudinal concentration of heating within the Tropics may lead to temperature increase in the winter high latitudes, together with an equatorward shift of the midlatitude westerly jet. Chang (1995) also suggested that the effects produced by the increase

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W-K. Tao, S. Lang, J. Simpson, C-H. Sui, B. Ferrier, and M-D. Chou

2624 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 53, No. 18Mechanism~ of Cloud-Radiation Interaction in the Tropics and MidlatitudesW.-K. TAO, $. LANG,* J. SnWPSON, C.-H. Su1, B. FERRIER, * AND M.-D. CHOULaboratory for Atmosphere~, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland(Manuscript received 14 April 1995, in final form 12 April 1996) Radiative forcing and latent heat associated with

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Falko Judt

1. Introduction Recently, Judt (2018) employed a global storm-resolving model 1 to revisit the issue of atmospheric predictability. The present study expands on the global-mean approach of Judt (2018) by exploring the predictability of three climate zones, namely, the tropics, middle latitudes, and polar regions. Following the theme of Judt (2018) , this study addresses fundamental aspects of predictability rather than the more practical issue of forecast skill. Nevertheless, this study

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Ulrike Wissmeier and Robert Goler

1. Introduction The city of Darwin lies within the tropics of northern Australia and records an average of 80 days of thunder each year. Although tropical thunderstorms are not usually expected to be severe 1 due to the generally weak vertical wind shear present, the Darwin area records an average of 12 severe storm events during the “build-up” and wet season (October to May) each year ( Chappel 2001 ). During the four wet seasons in 2002/03–2005/06, the probability of detection of severe

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Noel E. Davidson, Kevin J. Tory, Michael J. Reeder, and Wasyl L. Drosdowsky

there existed enhanced ascent and moistening over the monsoon, suggesting that preconditioning for onset had commenced much earlier than that indicated by the zonal wind changes alone. The first aim of this study is to document these structural changes. Various physical mechanisms have the potential to influence the onset of the Australian monsoon and convective outbreaks over the Tropics generally. They include extratropical–tropical interaction ( Lim and Chang 1981 ; D83 ; Keenan and Brody 1988

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