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Paul J. Goodman, Wilco Hazeleger, Pedro de Vries, and Mark Cane

the subtropical pycnocline. The Equatorial Undercurrent has also been linked to longer-term (decadal) climate variability. Gu and Philander (1997) propose that extratropical sea surface temperature anomalies are communicated to the Tropics via intergyre exchange, reappearing along the equator several years after being incorporated into the EUC and brought back to the surface. Zhang et al. (1998) cite a subsurface ocean “bridge” to explain the relationship between the warm sea surface

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Wilco Hazeleger, Pedro de Vries, and Yann Friocourt

Malanotte-Rizzoli et al. (2000) . Although the qualitative picture has been set by previous studies, there is a still debate on the pathways of subducted water from the midlatitudes to the Tropics. That is, the division between the transport through the interior part of the basin and along the western boundary of the basin. Also, the precise contribution of water masses from each hemisphere is not yet settled. The nearby region of the EUC has a complex current structure. From the south, the southern

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Dongxiao Zhang, Michael J. McPhaden, and William E. Johns

1. Introduction Subtropical cells (STCs) are shallow meridional overturning cells that transport water subducted in the subtropics during the winter season to the Tropics, where it is upwelled to the surface. The upwelled water is modified by air–sea heat exchange and then advected back to the subtropics by poleward Ekman flows in the surface layer to complete the STC. The pathways and transports of STCs in the Pacific have been extensively studied both observationally and theoretically (e

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Dongxiao Zhang, Michael J. McPhaden, and William E. Johns

1. Introduction Subtropical cells (STCs) are shallow meridional overturning cells that transport water subducted in the subtropics during the winter season to the Tropics, where it is upwelled to the surface. The upwelled water is modified by air–sea heat exchange and then advected back to the subtropics by poleward Ekman flows in the surface layer to complete the STC. The pathways and transports of STCs in the Pacific have been extensively studied both observationally and theoretically (e

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Zheng Hao and Michael Ghil

in the numerical simulation of tropical oceans is the uncertainty in wind stress forcing.A reduced-gravity shallow-water model has been used to test how assimilated ocean data correct simulationerrors caused by erroneous wind stress in the tropics. The geometry of the basin is rectangular and symmetricabout the equator, and the long-wave approximation is applied. All experiments are of the identical-twin type:the "observations" are generated by sampling the desired reference solution, and the

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Sydney Levitus

shows maxima exceeding 300 W m-2 along 40-N in the Pacific andAtlantic Oceans and in midlatitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Values exceeding 200 W m-2 are found inthe tropics. The results show large propagation of phase in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic.1. Introduction This paper presents results of a Fourier analysis ofmonthly climatological fields of the rate of change ofheat storage for the world ocean. We will discuss theannual cycle of this quantity by describing the amplitude and phase

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Bruno Blanke and Stéphane Raynaud

this hypothesis but also distinguish two separate paths (see also Fig. 9b ). Particle B arrives in the tropical basin east of 120°W and crosses almost the whole Pacific at a depth of a few hundred meters (where SEC water converges equatorward) until it reaches the EUC, west of 150°E. Particle C enters the Tropics at deeper levels (down to 500 m) along the coast of East Australia within a narrow jet. There is no such distinction for Northern Hemisphere waters: All particles entering the Tropics

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Simon A. Josey, Elizabeth C. Kent, and Peter K. Taylor

detail the characteristics of the wind stress fields in the Tropics. Finally, we summarize our findings and draw some conclusions with regard to the choice of a representative wind stress field for use in hydrographic and modeling studies. 2. Wind stress estimation and evaluation A detailed description of the surface meteorological report dataset and method used to generate the SOC climatology is given in Josey et al. (1998) . Here we provide only a brief description of the points relevant to the

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Xiao-Hui Zhou, Dong-Ping Wang, and Dake Chen

modes > 20. The noise is larger in the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream and around the Antarctic and is smaller in the tropics and over the marginal seas. The regional variation though is small compared to the mean. The globally averaged rms noise is 1.87 ± 0.26 cm, which is comparable to the commonly quoted value of 2 cm ( Fu et al. 1994 ). The noise pattern, which is linked to the surface wave height and the backscatter coefficient, is similar to the altimetry instrument noise reported in the SSALTO

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Neil F. Tandon, Oleg A. Saenko, Mark A. Cane, and Paul J. Kushner

1. Introduction Understanding Earth’s climate requires understanding how motions in the atmosphere and ocean redistribute the energy provided by the sun. The ocean generates approximately one-quarter of the equator-to-pole energy transport, and the ocean contribution is even greater in the tropics (e.g., Held 2001 ; Trenberth and Caron 2001 ; Czaja and Marshall 2006 ). This energy transport is accomplished through a combination of the horizontal gyre circulations and the meridional

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