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Steven Marcus, Jinwon Kim, Toshio Chin, David Danielson, and Jayme Laber

) model running typically at sub-10-km resolution, and a watershed-hydrology model nested within operational NWP data provided by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Initial tests of the system showed that one of the keys for improving short-term QPF is accurate initial atmospheric water vapor fields for the regional NWP model ( Marcus et al. 2004 ). The work described here is directed toward application of GPS precipitable water vapor (PWV) retrievals to the IRFS. For the

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Davide Dionisi, Fernando Congeduti, Gian Luigi Liberti, and Francesco Cardillo

1. Introduction Raman-scattering-based lidar is a well-established observational technique that allows for a good vertical and temporal sampling of water vapor (WV) mixing ratio (WVMR) from near the ground to the upper troposphere by analyzing the Raman-backscattering radiation from the water vapor molecules (e.g., Melfi 1972 ; Melfi et al. 1989 ; Whiteman et al. 1992 ; Goldsmith et al. 1998 ; Sherlock et al. 1999a ). A multichannel Rayleigh–Mie–Raman (RMR) lidar has been developed

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A. E. Dessler and S. Wong

, L20704 . doi:10.1029/2008GL035333 . Forster , P. M. D. , and M. Collins , 2004 : Quantifying the water vapour feedback associated with post-Pinatubo global cooling. Climate Dyn. , 23 , 207 – 214 . Gettelman , A. , and Q. Fu , 2008 : Observed and simulated upper-tropospheric water vapor feedback. J. Climate , 21 , 3282 – 3289 . Manabe , S. , and R. T. Wetherald , 1967 : Thermal equilibrium of atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity. J. Atmos. Sci

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Christian Herold, Dietrich Althausen, Detlef Müller, Matthias Tesche, Patric Seifert, Ronny Engelmann, Cyrille Flamant, Rohini Bhawar, and Paolo Di Girolamo

. , and Coauthors , 2007 : Intercomparison of water vapor data measured with lidar during IHOP_2002. Part II: Airborne-to-airborne systems . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 24 , 22 – 39 . Bhawar, R. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the Convective and Orographically-Induced Precipitation Study: Airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 325 – 348 , doi:10.1002/qj.697 . Bronstein, I

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Ken Minschwaner, Andrew E. Dessler, and Parnchai Sawaengphokhai

/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77 , 437 – 471 . Kley , D. , J. M. Russell III , and C. Phillips , Eds. 2000 : SPARC assessment of upper tropospheric and stratospheric water vapour. SPARC Rep. 2, World Climate Research Program 113, WMO Tech. Doc. 1043, 312 pp . Lau , K. M. , C. H. Ho , and M. D. Chou , 1996 : Water vapor and cloud feedback over the tropical oceans: Can we use ENSO as a surrogate for climate change? Geophys. Res. Lett. , 23

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James B. Gilmore

1. Introduction Rainfall and water vapor are central parts of Earth’s hydrological cycle and understanding their relationship remains an important challenge ( Raymond 2000 ; Held and Soden 2006 ; Allan and Soden 2008 ). One approach to this problem is to examine oceanic rainfall P as a function of column water vapor w ( Bretherton et al. 2004 ). The resulting curve, called the P – w relationship, probes the conversion of water vapor to rainfall, where w acts as both a source and sink

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Changyan Zhou, Ping Zhao, and Junming Chen

al. 2002 , 2008 ; Shi et al. 2009 ; Zhao et al. 2018 ). Under the influence of a strong atmospheric heat source over the TP, water vapor from the tropical Indian Ocean flows toward the TP, which maintains the convergence of water vapor and the “atmospheric water tower” over the TP ( Xu et al. 2014 ). Meanwhile, the tropospheric water vapor over the TP can be transported vertically into the lower stratosphere ( Gettelman et al. 2004 ; Fu et al. 2006 ) and horizontally into the surrounding

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Kevin S. Repasky, John A. Reagan, Amin R. Nehrir, David S. Hoffman, Michael J. Thomas, John L. Carlsten, Joseph A. Shaw, and Glenn E. Shaw

instruments and one ground-based in situ instrument are deployed to study aerosol optical properties for a 24-h period over Bozeman, Montana (45.66°N, 111.04°W, elevation 1530 m). The remote sensing instruments developed at Montana State University include an eye-safe diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for water vapor profiling in the lower troposphere ( Nehrir et al. 2009a , b ) and a two-color backscatter lidar for aerosol profiling. A solar radiometer operated as part of the NASA

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Tetsu Sakai, Tomohiro Nagai, Masahisa Nakazato, Takatsugu Matsumura, Narihiro Orikasa, and Yoshinori Shoji

1. Introduction Water vapor plays crucial roles in the hydrological and material cycles of the earth’s atmosphere. It condenses on aerosols to form cloud particles that can precipitate, and evaporates from the cloud particles to moisten the air (e.g., Pruppacher and Klett 1997 ). It also affects the earth’s radiation balance by absorbing and emitting infrared radiation because it is one of the most effective greenhouse gasses (e.g., Twomey 1991 ; Harries 1997 ). For better understanding of

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Biyan Chen, Zhizhao Liu, Wai-Kin Wong, and Wang-Chun Woo

; Jessup and DeGaetano 2008 ; Kawano et al. 2008 ). Consequently, reliable forecasting of the development and life cycle of extreme precipitation events is of great significance for natural hazard mitigation in urban regions. All the basic weather phenomena we experience everyday such as cloud, drizzle, rain, snow, sleet, and hail are intimately associated with atmospheric water vapor ( Mohanakumar 2008 ; Ahrens and Samson 2011 ). In addition, the latent heat carried by water vapor, which is released

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