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Chuntao Liu and Edward Zipser

precipitation amount. However, these measurements are only available over regions easy to access. Precipitation measurements over high mountains, deserts, and forests are very difficult to obtain by rain gauges. Over ocean, only sparse observations are available from the gauges on buoys (e.g., Bowman 2005 ) due to the difficulties of access and the cost. Therefore, remote sensing techniques have been widely used to provide a large areal coverage of precipitation estimates. The first attempt of remote

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Andrew C. Martin, F. Martin Ralph, Anna Wilson, Laurel DeHaan, and Brian Kawzenuk

Ralph et al. (2006) . Between 8 and 10 December, the expected river crest rose approximately 8 ft, a large change in the expected outcome in a short amount of time. Figures 1a and 1b also show the pressure reduced to mean sea level pressure (SLP; hPa) from ERA-Interim near the time of AR landfall in the RRW. Visible near 40°N, 137°W is a depression in SLP near the poleward periphery of the AR. This depression grew from a mesoscale frontal wave (MFW), initially detected in the ERA-Interim SLP field

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Richard Seager, Jennifer Nakamura, and Mingfang Ting

models, here we examine the prediction of the driving precipitation anomalies. Conclusions are as follows. Drought onset can be favored by La Niña conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean that drive a wave train that places northerly flow above the southern Great Plains. This provides a source of predictability for drought onsets, but this will be limited by SST prediction skill and also, in the fall season, biases in the height teleconnection pattern. Ocean forcing alone may on occasions be

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Lindsey Hayden and Chuntao Liu

. Krummel , and H. Gerber , 1996 : Microphysical and short-wave radiative structure of wintertime stratocumulus clouds over the Southern Ocean . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 122 , 1307 – 1339 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712253405 . 10.1002/qj.49712253405 Boers , R. , J. B. Jensen , and P. B. Krummel , 1998 : Microphysical and short-wave radiative structure of stratocumulus clouds over the Southern Ocean: Summer results and seasonal differences . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 124 , 151

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Tetsuzo Yasunari, Kazuyuki Saito, and Kumiko Takata

1. Introduction Monsoons are large-scale circulation systems induced by seasonal differential heating between land and oceans. Variabilities in monsoon systems can therefore be attributed to changing characteristics in energy storage and transfer processes between land, atmosphere, and oceans. Many previous studies have examined the influence of oceans on monsoon systems, focusing particularly on the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) changes, including El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO

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Robert F. Adler, George J. Huffman, Alfred Chang, Ralph Ferraro, Ping-Ping Xie, John Janowiak, Bruno Rudolf, Udo Schneider, Scott Curtis, David Bolvin, Arnold Gruber, Joel Susskind, Philip Arkin, and Eric Nelkin

oceans are considered. Thus, it seems that the standing waves in the NH help produce larger precipitation values over the oceans there, but the drier landmasses in this latitude zone reduce the total precipitation to slightly below the SH ocean and total values, which are nearly the same because of the relative lack of land in that zone. c. Global totals Table 1 contains the global precipitation totals for the GPCP Version 2, along with those for the two conventional climatologies. For the entire

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Cédric H. David, David R. Maidment, Guo-Yue Niu, Zong-Liang Yang, Florence Habets, and Victor Eijkhout

, especially by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( Solomon et al. 2007 ), opens potential studies of the evolution of water resources with global change. Using mapped streams and water bodies in LSMs could benefit the resulting assessment of the impact of global change in water resources by providing estimation of changes at the blue-line level. Furthermore, the use of parallel computing is quite common in regional- to global-scale atmospheric and ocean modeling but comparatively infrequent in

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Ulrike Romatschke and Robert A. Houze Jr.

long lifetimes and propagating aspect has led to speculation ( Houze 2004 ) that these particular offshore systems may be a gravity wave response, of the type described by Mapes et al. (2003) , to the daytime systems over the high terrain. d. Coastal terrain—Continental side The high terrain of the coastal regions affects precipitation systems differently on their landward compared to their oceanic sides. In IWC, many small systems peaking in the afternoon ( Fig. 14b ) are located inland from the

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Michael G. Bosilovich and Jiun-Dar Chern

1. Introduction When analyzing water cycle intensity, regional variations can be significantly different from the global background (e.g., Bosilovich et al. 2005 ). Precipitation over land is a function of both transport of water from the oceans and the evaporation from the land ( Trenberth et al. 2003 ). The water holding capacity of the vegetation and soil limits land evaporation. Therefore, variations of the land evaporation can affect the surface energy budget, planetary boundary layer

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Paul X. Flanagan, Jeffrey B. Basara, Jason C. Furtado, and Xiangming Xiao

composite ( Fig. 4c ) depicts a stronger negative anomaly signal occurring in the southwest extending farther to the northwest over the North Pacific Ocean. To further diagnose the differences in the wave structure for the Pattern years, we investigate the υ ( Fig. 5 ) and u ( Fig. 6 ) anomaly fields. The 250-mb υ wind component anomaly Pattern composite ( Fig. 5a ) exhibits a series of statistically significant (denoted by stippling in Fig. 5 ) couplets across Asia and North America

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