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Juan M. Restrepo, Jorge M. Ramírez, James C. McWilliams, and Michael Banner

1. Introduction After the wind has been acting on the ocean surface for some time, the amplitude of the fastest growing wave component can reach a critical unstable steepness for which whitecapping occurs (for details and references see Banner and Peregrine 1993 ). We refer to the process of steepening, whitecapping, and changing amplitude as wave breaking. These short-lived, spatiotemporally random events reduce the excess energy in the wave field and modify the momentum of the background

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Ramsey R. Harcourt and Eric A. D’Asaro

1. Introduction Exchanges of heat, water, momentum, and chemical species between the atmosphere and the ocean interior are mediated by mixing within the upper ocean boundary layer. This study seeks to quantify the role of surface waves in setting the level of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in this layer. This TKE level figures prominently in many ocean boundary layer models, including turbulence closure schemes of Mellor and Yamada (1982) and the K -profle parameterization (KPP; Large et al

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Erik van Sebille and Peter Jan van Leeuwen

located in the southern Atlantic Ocean. The legitimacy of using such a model can be disputed, as waves and currents are not well represented, thereby strongly underestimating the advective transport of energy. This energy transfer through waves can, however, be an important factor in baroclinic processes such as the MOC (e.g., Saenko et al. 2002 ). The way in which perturbations can radiate energy through a basin was investigated by Johnson and Marshall (2002a , b ). In their high

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Luc Lenain and Nick Pizzo

1. Introduction Deep-water surface gravity waves play a crucial role in the marine boundary layer, modulating the exchange of mass, momentum, heat, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere ( Melville 1996 ; Cavaleri et al. 2012 ). Irrotational surface waves have particle orbits that are not closed, but instead are slightly elliptic, leading to a drift in their direction of wave propagation, known as Stokes drift. This drift is usually inferred from the directional surface wave spectrum

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S. T. Cole, D. L. Rudnick, B. A. Hodges, and J. P. Martin

1. Introduction Vertical mixing in the deep ocean, which keeps the ocean stratified and helps to maintain global overturning circulation, is primarily accomplished by the dissipation of internal waves. Internal waves are forced by basin-scale winds and tides and dissipate energy to small-scale turbulence. Tidal and wind dissipation are estimated to be of roughly equal importance to maintaining open ocean stratification ( Munk and Wunsch 1998 ; Wunsch and Ferrari 2004 ; Garrett and Kunze 2007

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Tomas Chor, James C. McWilliams, and Marcelo Chamecki

unstable conditions. Last, we define a Langmuir velocity scale as w L = ⁡ ( u * 2 u 0 s ) 1 / 3 ( Harcourt and D’Asaro 2008 ). It is useful to assume that u 0 s is sufficient to characterize the effects of waves (which may be of limited realism) since in that case La t and Λ are sufficient to characterize any oceanic regime with only waves, surface wind stress and surface buoyancy fluxes as forcings. Based on this assumption we use a modified version of the regime diagram (seen in Fig. 2

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Daniel Bourgault and Daniel E. Kelley

1. Introduction Diverse observational case studies suggest that the breaking of high-frequency interfacial solitary waves (ISWs) on sloping boundaries may be an important generator of vertical mixing in coastal waters (e.g., MacIntyre et al. 1999 ; Bourgault and Kelley 2003 ; Klymak and Moum 2003 ; Moum et al. 2003 ). Since mixing is important to many aspects of coastal ocean dynamics, these observations call for the development of a model capable of predicting ISW generation, propagation

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R. C. Musgrave

1. Introduction Coastal trapped waves form a distinct class of wave motions in the ocean, relying on the presence of a topographic waveguide for their propagation. Unlike freely propagating inertia–gravity waves, there are no lower frequency limits for coastal trapped waves, which makes them an important mechanism for the transfer of subinertial energy along coastlines. They are often wind driven (e.g., Clarke 1977 ), but at high latitudes can be tidally driven (e.g., Cartwright 1969 ), and

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Ke Huang, Weiqing Han, Dongxiao Wang, Weiqiang Wang, Qiang Xie, Ju Chen, and Gengxin Chen

responds to the global climate variability and change ( Song and Colberg 2011 ; Balmaseda et al. 2013a ). Wind-driven Kelvin and Rossby waves and Rossby waves reflected from the eastern ocean boundary are observed to be important in causing the semiannual cycle of the surface and subsurface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean ( Wyrtki 1973 ; Anderson and Carrington 1993 ; Schott et al. 1997 ; Reppin et al. 1999 ; Iskandar et al. 2009 ; Chen et al. 2015 ; Nagura and McPhaden 2016 ). In

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Zhongxiang Zhao and Matthew H. Alford

superposition is nearly identical to that obtained from harmonic analysis. However, additional information is contained in the separated signals. The model to be solved for is a mode-1 wave propagating in a direction θ relative to the T/P track: where x is the along-track coordinate, t is time, ω 0 is the M 2 tidal frequency, and k 0 is the wavenumber of a mode-1 M 2 internal tide (determined from climatological ocean stratification profiles; see the appendix ). At each along-track location

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