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Francis W. Zwiers, Xuebin Zhang, and Yang Feng

temperature over the globe is nearly as large as that for mean temperature ( Hegerl et al. 2004 ) enhance our confidence in these detection results. The evidence of anthropogenic influence in extreme temperature at the regional scale should have important implications when considering climate change adaptation strategies. Our analysis is not without some caveats. A potential problem is that we were not able to totally account for the effects of spatial covariance and natural low-frequency variability on

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Danlu Cai, Klaus Fraedrich, Frank Sielmann, Yanning Guan, and Shan Guo

, the regional attribution accuracy is improved, especially for regions that are extremely wet or dry; and second, quantitative measures can be obtained for the controlling effects of external/climate change and internal/anthropogenic change on regional land surface (or watershed) scale. In this sense, the ecohydrological analysis has to include rotation of the ( U , W ) coordinates that are implemented by the three steps discussed here and displayed in Fig. 2 . 3. Analyses in geographical and

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Jonghun Kam, Thomas R. Knutson, and P. C. D. Milly

in atmospheric composition due to anthropogenic influence are sensitive to a number of physical processes in the models, such as treatments of clouds and cloud processes, ocean model resolution, and so on, making multimodel tests of robustness important. To explore the possible effects of anthropogenic climate change on streamflow timing, we assess an index of discharge-weighted streamflow timing, namely the calendar date on which half of the total mass of streamflow measured at a series of

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Chunhui Lu, Fraser C. Lott, Ying Sun, Peter A. Stott, and Nikolaos Christidis

precipitation in China remains limited. The detection of precipitation at regional scales continues to be a great challenge as indicated by the fact that the current studies could not reach consensus in the human influence on precipitation in China. Some event attribution studies have found that anthropogenic-induced effects have increased the probability and risk of intense precipitation events in southeast China and north of the Yangtze River ( Burke et al. 2016 ; Li et al. 2018 ; Sun et al. 2019 ). For

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Guoyu Ren and Yaqing Zhou

various ETIs in mainland China have been caused by the locally anthropogenic interferences or urbanization. 4. Urbanization effects and contributions a. Extreme value indices Table 3 gives annual- and seasonal-mean urbanization effects and contributions of the RCBMS for Tmin, Tmax, Tavg, and DTR over the time period 1961–2008. Annual- and seasonal-mean urbanization effects for mainland China as a whole are all statistically significant at the 0.05 confidence level for Tmin, Tmax, and Tavg, with the

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David E. Rupp, Philip W. Mote, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, Peter A. Stott, and David A. Robinson

experiment, “historicalNat,” used natural external forcings only, which include solar irradiance and volcanic gases. The second experiment, “historical,” used both natural and anthropogenic forcing; the latter includes long-lived greenhouse gases, aerosols and chemically active gases, though not all models include the identical suite of anthropogenic forcing agents. Simulated monthly SCE that excluded any time-varying forcing came from long-duration runs under the CMIP5 preindustrial control experiment

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Thomas R. Knutson and Fanrong Zeng

1. Introduction Precipitation changes associated with anthropogenic climate change have the potential for great societal impacts, as precipitation is a key driver of drought and flood risk. Previous studies have documented observed precipitation trends, including regional patterns of trends. For example, in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), trends over 1901–2005 were analyzed, statistically significant trends identified, and time series were shown for a number of key regions ( Trenberth

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M. Eby, K. Zickfeld, A. Montenegro, D. Archer, K. J. Meissner, and A. J. Weaver

-Reimer , G. Schurgers , M. Vizcaíno , and A. M. E. Winguth , 2007 : Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model. Climate Dyn. , 28 , 599 – 633 . Montenegro , A. , V. Brovkin , M. Eby , D. Archer , and A. J. Weaver , 2007 : Long term fate of anthropogenic carbon. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L19707 . doi:10.1029/2007GL030905 . Orr , J. C. , and Coauthors , 2005 : Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty

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Siyan Dong, Ying Sun, Chao Li, Xuebin Zhang, Seung-Ki Min, and Yeon-Hee Kim

precipitation over China, Li et al. (2018) indicated that the detection was not robust. While there is evidence of human influence on extreme precipitation, model simulations suggest important differences in the roles that greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols play in the changes of mean and extreme precipitation. Wu et al. (2013) showed that the lack of discernable trend in global mean precipitation expected from global warming is in part due to the counteracting effects of anthropogenic

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Xiaoqiong Li, Mingfang Ting, Cuihua Li, and Naomi Henderson

discrepancies between observations and model simulations as well as the contrast between past and future changes motivate us to examine further the causal mechanisms and to explore the relative effects of aerosols and GHGs for the historical period. Given the complex nature of the radiative forcing for the twentieth century with both anthropogenic aerosols and GHGs as well as other natural radiative forcing and the large monsoon variability on interannual and decadal time scales, the linear trend may not be

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