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Jonghun Kam, Thomas R. Knutson, and P. C. D. Milly

in atmospheric composition due to anthropogenic influence are sensitive to a number of physical processes in the models, such as treatments of clouds and cloud processes, ocean model resolution, and so on, making multimodel tests of robustness important. To explore the possible effects of anthropogenic climate change on streamflow timing, we assess an index of discharge-weighted streamflow timing, namely the calendar date on which half of the total mass of streamflow measured at a series of

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Chunhui Lu, Fraser C. Lott, Ying Sun, Peter A. Stott, and Nikolaos Christidis

precipitation in China remains limited. The detection of precipitation at regional scales continues to be a great challenge as indicated by the fact that the current studies could not reach consensus in the human influence on precipitation in China. Some event attribution studies have found that anthropogenic-induced effects have increased the probability and risk of intense precipitation events in southeast China and north of the Yangtze River ( Burke et al. 2016 ; Li et al. 2018 ; Sun et al. 2019 ). For

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Guoyu Ren and Yaqing Zhou

various ETIs in mainland China have been caused by the locally anthropogenic interferences or urbanization. 4. Urbanization effects and contributions a. Extreme value indices Table 3 gives annual- and seasonal-mean urbanization effects and contributions of the RCBMS for Tmin, Tmax, Tavg, and DTR over the time period 1961–2008. Annual- and seasonal-mean urbanization effects for mainland China as a whole are all statistically significant at the 0.05 confidence level for Tmin, Tmax, and Tavg, with the

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David E. Rupp, Philip W. Mote, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, Peter A. Stott, and David A. Robinson

experiment, “historicalNat,” used natural external forcings only, which include solar irradiance and volcanic gases. The second experiment, “historical,” used both natural and anthropogenic forcing; the latter includes long-lived greenhouse gases, aerosols and chemically active gases, though not all models include the identical suite of anthropogenic forcing agents. Simulated monthly SCE that excluded any time-varying forcing came from long-duration runs under the CMIP5 preindustrial control experiment

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Thomas R. Knutson and Fanrong Zeng

1. Introduction Precipitation changes associated with anthropogenic climate change have the potential for great societal impacts, as precipitation is a key driver of drought and flood risk. Previous studies have documented observed precipitation trends, including regional patterns of trends. For example, in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), trends over 1901–2005 were analyzed, statistically significant trends identified, and time series were shown for a number of key regions ( Trenberth

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M. Eby, K. Zickfeld, A. Montenegro, D. Archer, K. J. Meissner, and A. J. Weaver

-Reimer , G. Schurgers , M. Vizcaíno , and A. M. E. Winguth , 2007 : Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model. Climate Dyn. , 28 , 599 – 633 . Montenegro , A. , V. Brovkin , M. Eby , D. Archer , and A. J. Weaver , 2007 : Long term fate of anthropogenic carbon. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L19707 . doi:10.1029/2007GL030905 . Orr , J. C. , and Coauthors , 2005 : Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty

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Siyan Dong, Ying Sun, Chao Li, Xuebin Zhang, Seung-Ki Min, and Yeon-Hee Kim

precipitation over China, Li et al. (2018) indicated that the detection was not robust. While there is evidence of human influence on extreme precipitation, model simulations suggest important differences in the roles that greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols play in the changes of mean and extreme precipitation. Wu et al. (2013) showed that the lack of discernable trend in global mean precipitation expected from global warming is in part due to the counteracting effects of anthropogenic

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Xiaoqiong Li, Mingfang Ting, Cuihua Li, and Naomi Henderson

discrepancies between observations and model simulations as well as the contrast between past and future changes motivate us to examine further the causal mechanisms and to explore the relative effects of aerosols and GHGs for the historical period. Given the complex nature of the radiative forcing for the twentieth century with both anthropogenic aerosols and GHGs as well as other natural radiative forcing and the large monsoon variability on interannual and decadal time scales, the linear trend may not be

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Megan C. Kirchmeier-Young, Francis W. Zwiers, and Nathan P. Gillett

. 2013 ) for the last several decades and will likely continue to increase at a greater rate than at lower latitudes because of Arctic amplification ( Serreze and Barry 2011 ). Gillett et al. (2008) attributed recent trends in Arctic temperatures to anthropogenic influences. Najafi et al. (2015) distinguished between the separate effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other anthropogenic forcings (OANT; including aerosols) on Arctic temperature. They detected a signal from both GHG and OANT in

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Shuguang Liu, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Lena R. Boysen, James D. Ford, Andrew Fox, Kevin Gallo, Jerry Hatfield, Geoffrey M. Henebry, Thomas G. Huntington, Zhihua Liu, Thomas R. Loveland, Richard J. Norby, Terry Sohl, Allison L. Steiner, Wenping Yuan, Zhao Zhang, and Shuqing Zhao

major research directions within each theme for the coming 5 to 10 years. 2. Overall and specific roles of LCLUC on climate LCLUC resulting from both natural and anthropogenic forces has had major impacts on climate at the local to global scales. Especially during the past 10 years, efforts have been made to quantify the biogeochemical contribution of LCLUC-induced greenhouse gases acting at the global scale and analyze the biogeophysical effects of LCLUC on land–atmosphere coupling relevant at

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