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Christopher P. Konrad

1. Introduction Globally droughts pose significant social and ecological threats in part because of limited water availability in rivers and streams ( Harding et al. 1995 ; Heim 2002 ; Lake 2003 ; Golladay et al. 2004 ; Bond et al. 2008 ; van Dijk et al. 2013 ; van Lanen et al. 2016 ). Reduced streamflow during drought in the western United States has wide ranging effects, which can impact society and ecosystems as a result of their severity and spatial extent ( Cayan et al. 2010

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Shinjiro Kanae, Taikan Oki, and Katumi Musiake

the 1993 landscape in southern Florida. They obtained an 11% decrease in rainfall with the 1993 landscape, as compared with the simulation results with the 1900 landscape. They argued that the trends in summer rainfall as suggested by the limited available observations are consistent with the trends in the numerical experiments. Unfortunately, records of observed rainfall were only available at three stations located at the coast or the shore. Because effects of anthropogenic landscape changes on

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Binghao Jia, Jianguo Liu, Zhenghui Xie, and Chunxiang Shi

, . 10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.08.004 Yuan , X. , Z. Ma , M. Pan , and C. Shi , 2015 : Microwave remote sensing of short-term droughts during crop growing seasons . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 42 , 4394 – 4401 , . 10.1002/2015GL064125 Zeng , Y. , Z. Xie , Y. Yu , S. Liu , L. Wang , J. Zou , P. Qin , and B. Jia , 2016 : Effects of anthropogenic water regulation and groundwater lateral flow on land processes

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Tian Zhou, Bart Nijssen, Huilin Gao, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

level rise. Sea Level Rise: History and Consequences , B. C. Douglas, M. S. Kearney, and S. P. Leatherman, Eds., Academic Press, 97–119 . Haddeland, I. , Skaugen T. , and Lettenmaier D. P. , 2006 : Anthropogenic impacts on continental surface water fluxes . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L08406 , doi: 10.1029/2006GL026047 . Haddeland, I. , Skaugen T. , and Lettenmaier D. P. , 2007 : Hydrologic effects of land and water management in North America and Asia: 1700–1992 . Hydrol. Earth

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Karin van der Wiel, Sarah B. Kapnick, Gabriel A. Vecchi, James A. Smith, P. C. D. Milly, and Liwei Jia

major extreme events needs to be done with care and with consideration that forcing mechanisms may differ, as was shown to be the case in the model. For adequate flood risk management, understanding extreme flood characteristics is vital. Because buildings and infrastructure projects are built to be used in later decades, consideration of the effects of anthropogenic climate change is necessary. Other human processes impacting extreme river discharge, most notably river management by means of dams

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Victoria A. Bell, Nicola Gedney, Alison L. Kay, Roderick N. B. Smith, Richard G. Jones, and Robert J. Moore

Penman–Monteith formulation ( Monteith 1965 ), requiring estimates of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, net downward short- and longwave radiation, and aerodynamic and canopy resistance. The more complex PE schemes are often preferred for climate-impact studies as their greater physical basis is likely to be more responsive to climate effects on a range of atmospheric variables. However, these schemes tend to be data intensive and sensitive to the relative accuracy of the driving

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Gang Zhao, Huilin Gao, and Lan Cuo

, 2008 ). Studies show that significant changes of precipitation extreme events have occurred as the result of anthropogenic climate change ( Alexander et al. 2006 ; Easterling et al. 2000 ; Pall et al. 2011 ; Lehmann et al. 2015 ), and this trend will continue ( Beniston et al. 2007 ; Marengo et al. 2009 ). In addition, Ivancic and Shaw (2015) found an increase in high discharge events in the northern United States, due to the large antecedent soil moisture induced by climate change. From both

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Sjoukje Philip, Sarah F. Kew, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Emma Aalbers, Robert Vautard, Friederike Otto, Karsten Haustein, Florence Habets, and Roop Singh

trends in sea surface temperature (SST)-forced global climate model simulations since 1960, trends in regional climate model simulations since 1950, and comparisons with a counterfactual climate without anthropogenic emissions in a large ensemble of SST-forced regional model simulations. The methodology is described in section 2 . The analysis of observations and the five model ensembles are described in sections 3 and 4 . Furthermore, in section 5 we briefly analyze the potential large

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Lu Gao, Jie Huang, Xingwei Chen, Ying Chen, and Meibing Liu

complex relationships between the large-scale circulations, the effects of anthropogenic aerosols, and the synoptic processes, in particular at the regional scale ( Ohba et al. 2015 ; Wang 2015 ). A number of studies have been conducted to explore the reasons for extreme precipitation trends. For example, Ohba et al. (2015) determined that the variability of extreme precipitation is significant on interannual and interdecadal time scales under the multiple effects of the East Asian monsoon, El Niño

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Jamie Dyer

1. Introduction Soil type and vegetation play a key role in determining the dynamics of energy and moisture transport into the atmospheric boundary layer through spatial variations in evapotranspiration, albedo, and surface heat fluxes ( Hong et al. 1995 ; Segal et al. 1988 ; Ookouchi et al. 1984 ; Rabin et al. 1990 ; Mahfouf et al. 1987 ; Boyles et al. 2007 ). These effects are well documented and can occur in various climate zones given benign synoptic forcing. Research has shown that

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