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Jagadish Thaker, Edward Maibach, Anthony Leiserowitz, Xiaoquan Zhao, and Peter Howe

can be attributed to differences at the community level and as a baseline to examine if more complex models fit the data better. Results from the null model, with no predictors except specifying random effects for each community, indicated that 46% of the variance in behavioral involvement could be attributed to differences at the community level. The random intercept model was specified using individual-level sociodemographic (gender, age, income, education, and dummy variables for caste), risk

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Kirsti Jylhä, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Kimmo Ruosteenoja, Hanna Niemi-Hugaerts, Krista Keisu, and Juha A. Karhu

regions were reduced in size ( Fraedrich et al. 2001 ; Wang and Overland 2004 ). Shifts from colder to warmer climate types have occurred in Europe as well ( Fraedrich et al. 2001 ; Beck et al. 2006 ; Gerstengarbe and Werner 2008 ). In the future, the anthropogenic global warming, with its associated changes in precipitation, is projected to move the boundaries of the climatic zones farther still ( Lohmann et al. 1993 ; Kalvová et al. 2003 ; de Castro et al. 2007 ; Gao and Giorgi 2008 ; Lemke

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Megan L. White and J. Anthony Stallins

anthropogenic modification of convective processes ( Rozoff et al. 2003 ; Gero and Pitman 2006 ; Haberlie et al. 2015 ). 2. Methods We posed two questions: 1) How do population, income, and percent impervious surface vary in their association with the number of verified and unverified severe thunderstorm warnings? 2) What role do CWA boundaries and WFO locations play in the response patterns of verified and unverified warnings to the independent variables? The geographic extent of our study spanned 13

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Wesley Tourangeau, Kate Sherren, Carlisle Kent, and Bertrum H. MacDonald

the likelihood of farmers changing their practices ( Kimura and Antón 2011 ). Such programs may in fact reduce resilience to future change, as observed by Adger et al. (2011) in the context of international agricultural drought policy; however, the reduction may be hidden by the ongoing anthropogenic inputs that camouflage the ecological signals of environmental decline ( Rist et al. 2014 ). The last two adaptation options—farm practices and financial management—empower the producer to make

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Melanie M. Colavito, Sarah F. Trainor, Nathan P. Kettle, and Alison York

activity with potential dramatic shifts in vegetation ( Chapin et al. 2010 ; Mann et al. 2012 ; Johnstone et al. 2011 ; Joly et al. 2012 ). Since 2000, the average annual area burned is nearly twice as much as the previous five decades on record, and the total acreage burned is expected to increase in response to warming ( Kasischke et al. 2010 ; Balshi et al. 2009 ; Calef et al. 2015 ). The effects of climate change on fire are diverse. For example, the record 2004 and 2005 fire seasons (6

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Thomas W. Corringham and Daniel R. Cayan

conclusions is difficult due to the lack of consistent data on flood damages and exposure ( Changnon 2003 ), although the increase in damages in the United States appears to be driven largely by increased exposure (i.e., increased population and wealth in areas at risk of flooding) ( Klotzbach et al. 2018 ; Downton et al. 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2002 ; Changnon et al. 2000 ). An established body of climate research demonstrates the effects of large-scale atmospheric–oceanic oscillations on hydrologic

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Basanta Raj Adhikari

hazards in Nepal ( Fig. 1 ). According to the Disaster Risk Reduction Portal, GoN, lightning claimed the highest number fatalities (94) and affected 2884 people with a loss of USD 110,982 in 2019 ( GoN 2020 ). The historical record of lightning activity and its effects is very limited due to the limited communication and recording system in Nepal. Moreover, these fatality events are localized, and therefore the concerned organizations are not paying much attention. However, the death toll and

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Scott C. Sheridan, P. Grady Dixon, Adam J. Kalkstein, and Michael J. Allen

physiological factors that affect thermal vulnerability, the precise roles of human adaptation, improved healthcare, and overall heat awareness is difficult to discern. Nevertheless, with more frequent and intense heat events likely to continue as a result of anthropogenic climate change, and an aging population around the world, collective human vulnerability to heat will likely continue to grow ( Huber et al. 2017 ; Sanderson et al. 2017 ; Broadbent et al. 2020 ). Further, shifts in the climate will

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Mary McRae, Ross A. Lee, Scott Steinschneider, and Frank Galgano

the dry atmosphere” or dry DA. To incorporate the effects of atmospheric moisture on DA, virtual temperature T υ must be used. The formula for T υ ( Wallace and Hobbs 2006 ) is (1) T υ = T 1 − ( e P hPa ) × ⁡ ( 1 − 0.622 ) . In this equation, T υ represents virtual temperature (K), e represents vapor pressure (hPa), P hPa represents station pressure (static atmospheric pressure; hPa), and T represents station temperature (outside air temperature; K). The virtual temperature requires a

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Maya K. Buchanan, Michael Oppenheimer, and Adam Parris

1. Introduction Forty percent of the world’s population resides along ocean coastlines, and ~10% live on land that is within 10 m above sea level ( McGranahan et al. 2007 ). Meanwhile, urban exposure to flooding is increasing as a result of population growth and sea level rise (SLR) resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Recent research on the rate and magnitude of SLR ( Kopp et al. 2014 ; Sweet et al. 2017 ), the change in distribution of tropical cyclones ( Lin et al. 2012 ; Walsh et

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