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Richard S. Lindzen

fluctuationsof 2 deg K. This appears to rule out minute changes in solar ultraviolet emission as a cause for the '26-month'oscillation in the equatorial mesosphere. It is also found that the mesosphere is quite sensitive to fluctuationsin visible light in the region between 20 and 35 km where fluctuations of 3-6 per cent in visible radiation cangive rise to fluctuations of 2 deg K in temperature. On the average, about 26 per cent of the visible radiationin the mesosphere is received via reflection from below

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Ann M. Fridlind, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Andrew S. Ackerman, Alexander Avramov, Agnieszka Mrowiec, Hugh Morrison, Paquita Zuidema, and Matthew D. Shupe

1. Introduction Observations indicate that the Arctic has warmed at roughly twice the global average rate since the preindustrial period, and that trend is expected to continue during this century ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). However, climate model predictions vary considerably, owing at least in part to the complexity of atmosphere–ice–ocean interactions and a scarcity of the data required to study them ( Randall et al. 1998 ; Sorteberg et al. 2007 ). Differences in climate model representation

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Gerald Herman and Richard Goody

Auousr1976 GERALD HERMAN AND RICHARD GOODY 1537Formation and Persistence of Summertime Arctic Stratus Clouds GERALD HERI~AN1 AND RICHARD GOODYCenter for Earth and Planetary Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 02138(Manuscript received 26 January 1976, in revised form 4 May 1976) ABSTRACT We have devdoped a numerical model which can explain the principle

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Dehai Luo, Jing Cha, and Steven B. Feldstein

. , 50 , 2674 – 2696 . Choi , D.-H. , J.-S. Kug , W.-T. Kwon , F.-F. Jin , H. J. Baek , and S.-K. Min , 2010 : Arctic Oscillation responses to greenhouse warming and role of synoptic eddy feedback . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D17103 , doi:10.1029/2010JD014160 . Cohen , J. , and M. Barlow , 2005 : The NAO, the AO, and global warming: How closely related? J. Climate , 18 , 4498 – 4513 . Corti , S. , F. Molteni , and T. N. Palmer , 1999 : Signature of recent

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Ngar-Cheung Lau and Ka-Ming Lau

1 OCTOBER 1986NGAR-CHEUNG LAU AND KA-MING LAU2023The Structure and Propagation of Intraseasonal Oscillations Appearing in a GFDL General Circulation Model NGAR-CHEUNG LAUGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542JSA-MING LAUGoddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (Manuscript received 22 November 1985, in final form 17 March 1986) ABSTRACTThe three

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Sergey Kravtsov, John E. Ten Hoeve, Steven B. Feldstein, Sukyoung Lee, and Seok-Woo Son

are related to the so-called annular modes ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000 ). The annular mode of the Northern Hemisphere is often referred to as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and may be related to the more geographically confined North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO; Deser 2000 ; Hurrell et al. 2003 ; Feldstein and Franzke 2006 ). An analogous feature in the Southern Hemisphere is called the Southern Annular Mode (SAM; Thompson and Wallace 2000 ). The poleward propagation (PP) of the zonal

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David M. Straus, Erik Swenson, and Cara-Lyn Lappen

observations) to examine the MJO influence on the storm tracks over the Pacific ( Lee and Lim 2012 ; Deng and Jiang 2011 , hereafter DJ ), and to link the MJO to circulation patterns over North America ( Grise et al. 2013 ), to the Arctic Oscillation ( Zhou and Miller 2005 , hereafter ZM ), and to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation ( Cassou 2008 ; Lin et al. 2009 ; Riddle et al. 2013 ). These observational studies have been complemented by basic theoretical studies ( Frederiksen and Lin 2013

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Hai Lin and Gilbert Brunet

.-C. , 1988 : Variability of the observed midlatitude storm tracks in relation to low-frequency changes in the circulation pattern . J. Atmos. Sci. , 45 , 2718 – 2743 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<2718:VOTOMS>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<2718:VOTOMS>2.0.CO;2 L’Heureux , M. L. , and R. W. Higgins , 2008 : Boreal winter links between the Madden–Julian oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation . J. Climate , 21 , 3040 – 3050 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1955.1 . 10

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Johnny Wei-Bing Lin, J. David Neelin, and Ning Zeng

–1505 . ——, and M. J. Miller, 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part II: Single column tests using GATE wave, BOMEX, ATEX and arctic air-mass data sets. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 693–709 . Bladé, I., and D. L. Hartmann, 1993: Tropical intraseasonal oscillations in a simple nonlinear model. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 2922–2939 . Brooks, C. E. P., and N. Carruthers, 1953: Handbook of Statistical Methods in Meteorology. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 412 pp . Brown, R. G., and C. S

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A. H. Manson and C. E. Meek

establishlatitudinal variations of the seasonal dynamics of the upper Middle Atmosphere.1. Introduction Since the Saskatoon medium frequency (MF) radarbegan continuous operation in 1978, with real-timewinds analysis, a considerable quantity of data havebeen obtained. These winds have been analyzed to assess the characteristics of tides (e.g. Manson el al.,1981a,b, 1982, .1983a; Manson and Meek, 1984), meanwinds and long period (&gt;30 d) oscillations, (the aboveplus Gregory et al., 1981; Manson et al., 1981c

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