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Matthias Falk, R. D. Pyles, S. L. Ustin, K. T. Paw U, L. Xu, M. L. Whiting, B. L. Sanden, and P. H. Brown

) an analytical land atmospheric radiometer model (ALARM; Suleiman and Crago 2002 ), and 6) the Atmosphere–Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model ( Anderson et al. 1997 , 2007 ). Allen et al. (2005 , 2007 ) developed the METRIC model, fundamentally rooted in SEBAL ( Bastiaanssen et al. 1998 ), where both models use a near-surface temperature gradient. While models like METRIC and SEBAL are attractive because of their large spatial detail appropriate for subfield mapping, these models are subject

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Miranda Braam, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, and Monica Górska

study under heterogeneous conditions asked two main questions: 1) How is the induced mesoscale circulation represented by MM5, as compared with DALES? 2) Are the modeled surface fluxes in MM5 influenced by the induced mesoscale circulation (atmosphere–land interactions)? To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a mesoscale model and an LES have been compared using control numerical simulations with identical surface forcing. The paper is structured as follows. The models under study

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Marco L. Carrera, Bernard Bilodeau, Stéphane Bélair, Maria Abrahamowicz, Albert Russell, and Xihong Wang

-level observations, resulted from model deficiencies not related to soil moisture. The relative information content of screen-level observations versus L-band TBs was examined in a synthetic environment by Balsamo et al. (2007) who noted for a single observation that the information content of the L-band TBs (screen-level observations) was highest (lowest) for the root-zone soil moisture update in the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model. Draper et al. (2011) noted

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Sönke Zaehle, Chris D. Jones, Benjamin Houlton, Jean-Francois Lamarque, and Eddy Robertson

the Community Earth System Model, version 1–Biogeochemistry [CESM1(BGC)], which included the Community Land Model, version 4 (CLM4; Thornton et al. 2009 ), and thus accounted for C–N cycle interactions explicitly. Of the available output, we used annual means of living above- and below-ground biomass (cVeg), undecomposed dead plant material (cLitter), and soil organic matter (cSoil), as well as carbon stored in wood products (cProduct). The HadGEM2 and GFDL-ESM2 models did not report litter

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, David M. Mocko, Lu Su, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Pierre Gentine, and Michael Barlage

) ( Nie et al. 2019 ; Gan et al. 2019 ). As an illustrative example, the community Noah-MP LSM, a medium-complexity energy and water balance model, uses multiple options for key land–atmosphere interaction processes ( Niu et al. 2011 ; Yang et al. 2011 ). Two of these physics options are particularly relevant for drought applications: groundwater and dynamic phenology. There are several schemes available in Noah-MP for surface water infiltration and runoff, and groundwater transfer and storage

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Bruce Davison, Alain Pietroniro, Vincent Fortin, Robert Leconte, Moges Mamo, and M. K. Yau

surface water and an additional 7%–17% of the global land area has a water table or capillary fringe that is accessible to plant roots ( Fan et al. 2013 ). Field studies illustrate that groundwater can keep peatlands wet to maintain base flow and control summer rain responses in dry conditions ( Branfireun and Roulet 1998 ). Two-way interaction between streams and groundwater is also an important process influencing the overall water cycle. For example, floodwaters are important sources of recharge in

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Justin S. Mankin, Jason E. Smerdon, Benjamin I. Cook, A. Park Williams, and Richard Seager

( Cook et al. 2015 ; Ault et al. 2016 ; Feng et al. 2017 ). Soil moisture—water stored in the vadose zone—is a critical climate quantity that plays an active role in the balances of energy, water, biogeochemistry, land–atmosphere interactions, and boundary layer circulation ( Seneviratne et al. 2010 ). Projections of soil moisture from ESMs, like the diagnostic P − E , include changes in surface resistance due to physiological forcing. Unlike P − E , however, soil moisture is endogenous to

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Mark Decker, Andy J. Pitman, and Jason Evans

: The partitioning of evapotranspiration into transpiration, soil evaporation, and canopy evaporation in a GCM: Impacts on land–atmosphere interaction . J. Hydrometeor. , 8 , 862 – 880 , doi: 10.1175/JHM596.1 . Lawrence, P. J. , and Chase T. N. , 2009 : Climate impacts of making evapotranspiration in the Community Land Model (CLM3) consistent with the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) . J. Hydrometeor. , 10 , 374 – 394 , doi: 10.1175/2008JHM987.1 . Liu, Y. Y. , van Dijk A. I. J. M

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Zelalem K. Tesemma, Yongping Wei, Andrew W. Western, and Murray C. Peel

–2010) for projected climate change under the four RCPs. 4. Conclusions The LAI of vegetation is an important ecohydrological parameter for understanding the dynamic interactions between climate and vegetation and for improving agricultural water management in arid and semiarid areas. This study investigated relationships between LAI of three main land covers (tree, pasture, and crop) in the study region with climate (precipitation, temperature, and reference crop evapotranspiration) through both linear

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Thierry Bergot, Enric Terradellas, Joan Cuxart, Antoni Mira, Olivier Liechti, Mathias Mueller, and Niels Woetmann Nielsen

scheme ISBA-DF (where DF stands for diffusion; Boone 2000 ; Boone et al. 1999 ). e. COBEL-Noah The atmospheric model is a modified version of the high-resolution COBEL model described in Bergot and Guedalia (1994) . The main modifications concern the turbulence scheme and the parameterization of the interaction between the soil and the atmosphere ( Mueller et al. 2005 ). The vertical resolution is defined by 30 levels in the lowest 200 m. The surface scheme is the Noah land surface model ( Chen et

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