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John M. Huthnance, Mark E. Inall, and Neil J. Fraser

1. Introduction Eastern (often poleward) boundary currents are common in the oceans, occurring (for example) off Iberia (most obviously in winter; e.g., Frouin et al. 1990 ), around the United Kingdom (the European Slope Current, e.g., Huthnance 1986 ; Marsh et al. 2017 ), off the western United States (California Undercurrent; e.g., Connolly et al. 2014 ), and off western Australia (the Leeuwin Current; e.g., Smith et al. 1991 ). They may be seasonal according to the forcing, and obscured

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Doron Nof, Volodymyr Zharkov, Wilton Arruda, Thierry Pichevin, Stephen Van Gorder, and Nathan Paldor

layers and ), and is the width of the boundary current downstream at CD (i.e., y = L when ). Note that symbols and abbreviations are defined in both the text and the appendix . Here, L , which is a weak function of x , depends on the outflow potential vorticity and is on the order of the Rossby radius, where Q is the outflow’s volume flux (equal to , where H is a depth scale). Assuming steadiness, one dimensionality (i.e., υ ≪ u but nonzero), and geostrophy in the cross

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O. R. Southwick, E. R. Johnson, and N. R. McDonald

-dimensional alongshore velocity and depth profiles of a rotating gravity current in a channel have been derived ( Hacker and Linden 2002 ; Martin and Lane-Serff 2005 ; Martin et al. 2005 ). In experiments, the scalings of steady, geostrophic, constant-width coastal currents typically match well to the results ( Davies et al. 1993 ; Lentz and Helfrich 2002 ; Avicola and Huq 2002 ; Thomas and Linden 2007 ). The temporal development of vortical flows near boundaries and the effects of precursor Kelvin waves are

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X. Capet, J. C. McWilliams, M. J. Molemaker, and A. F. Shchepetkin

1. Introduction Wind-driven currents exhibit mesoscale instabilities, and the resulting mesoscale eddies are typically the flow type with the largest kinetic energy in the ocean (besides the tides). The prevailing dynamical paradigm for the general circulation encompasses these large- and mesoscale currents together with mixing and dissipation primarily caused by microscale flows (e.g., turbulent boundary layers and breaking internal waves). In this paper and its companions ( Capet et al. 2008

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Stefano Pierini

1. Introduction The classical models of the wind-driven circulation and western boundary currents are steady. The Sverdrup balance for the oceanic interior, the Stommel (1948) and Munk (1950) theories proposed to close the circulation at the western boundary, and the early inertial theories all assume an atmospheric vorticity input provided by a mean time-independent wind field (e.g., Pedlosky 1996 ). The wind system, which induces the general circulation in the oceans, is, of course, far

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Sang-Ki Lee, J. L. Pelegrí, and John Kroll

subtropical gyres, in particular the role played by topographic features in lateral boundaries (e.g., Huang 1991 ). The importance of the slope at the ocean boundaries became clear in Warren's (1963) idealized model on the meandering of a western boundary current due to vortex stretching over a sloping bottom. Holland (1973) did a numerical study to find that the continental slope has a profound influence on the western boundary current and the midcirculation gyre. Salmon (1992) investigated the

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G. T. Csanady

October 1975G. T. CSANADY705Lateral Momentum Flux in Boundary Currents1G. T. CsanadyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543(Manuscript received 5 July 1974, in revised form 19 May 1975)ABSTRACTSome simple momentum advection effects are considered in a current aligned with the y axis on whichthere is superimposed a "cross" flow in the x-z plane. The cross flow coupled with horizontal shear in thecurrent tends to generate differences along the vertical in the longshore

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Paola Cessi and Glenn R. Ierley

AUGUST1993 CESSI AND IERLEY 1727Nonlinear Disturbances of Western Boundary Currents PAOLA CESSI* '~ AND GLENN R. IERLEY * *- Scripps Institution of Oceanography--University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Californiaand t lstituto FISBAT~CNR, Bologna, Ilaly- * Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics--University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California

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Peter G. Baines and Roger L. Hughes

2576 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOI. UI~26Western Boundary Current Separation: Inferences from a Laboratory Experiment PETLm G. BA~ES AND ROGER L. HUGHES*Divi.~'ion of Atmospheric Research, CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia(Manuscript received 15 November 1994, in final form 13 October 1995)ABSTRACT Observations of a laboratory model of a western

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X. Capet, J. C. McWilliams, M. J. Molemaker, and A. F. Shchepetkin

1. Introduction Wind-driven currents exhibit mesoscale instabilities, and the resulting mesoscale eddies are typically the flow type with the largest kinetic energy (KE) in the ocean (besides the tides). The prevailing dynamical paradigm for the oceanic general circulation encompasses these large- and mesoscale currents together with mixing and dissipation, primarily caused by microscale flows (e.g., turbulent boundary layers and breaking internal waves). In this paper and its companions

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