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Si Gao, Langfeng Zhu, Wei Zhang, and Zhifan Chen

2013. The associated high wind, strong storm surge, and heavy rain caused catastrophic destruction when it made landfall in the Philippines ( Lander et al. 2014 ). Climate models have generally projected higher frequency of intense TCs over the WNP under global warming (e.g., Knutson et al. 2010 , 2015 ; Sugi et al. 2017 ). As a result, a better understanding of the variations of intense typhoons over the WNP is of great significance to mitigate TC-related hazards. Observed trends of intense

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G. Mengistu Tsidu

1. Introduction An element common to both quality assessment for database construction and the use of data in the study of physical phenomena is the estimation of some statistical quantities aimed at characterizing certain aspects of the data. For instance, the trend in climate variables is one of the pressing issues. Present climate studies are primarily focused on the detection and attribution of climate change. A number of studies in different parts of the world on continental and

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Nicolas Barrier, Christophe Cassou, Julie Deshayes, and Anne-Marie Treguier

. Rev. , 115 , 1083 – 1126 . Barrier , N. , A.-M. Treguier , C. Cassou , and J. Deshayes , 2013 : Impact of the winter North-Atlantic weather regimes on subtropical sea-surface height variability . Climate Dyn. , 41, 1159–1171. Bellucci , A. , S. Gualdi , E. Scoccimarro , and A. Navarra , 2008 : NAO–ocean circulation interactions in a coupled general circulation model . Climate Dyn. , 31 , 759 – 777 . Biastoch , A. , C. W. Böning , J. Getzlaff , J

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Jose A. Marengo, Lincoln M. Alves, Wagner R. Soares, Daniel A. Rodriguez, Helio Camargo, Marco Paredes Riveros, and Amelia Diaz Pabló

1. Introduction The year 2012 featured two simultaneous “once in a century” extreme seasonal events in tropical South America: intense rainfall in Amazonia (AMZ) that generated the record flooding there and the extreme drought that affected Northeast Brazil (NEB). The flooding in 2012 surpassed the previous record in 2009, and the drought in Northeast Brazil was even more intense than the previous record drought during El Niño 1998. Droughts and floods are part of the natural climate

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Zachary Naiman, Paul J. Goodman, John P. Krasting, Sergey L. Malyshev, Joellen L. Russell, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Andrew T. Wittenberg

1. Introduction Land surface topography is a fundamental boundary condition of Earth’s climate system. As such, there is a greater than 40-yr history of numerical modeling experiments that examine the role of orography in shaping broad features of the climate system. Previous studies have used a paleo approach in which orographic height and location correspond to best estimates of continental configurations and orography from specific periods in Earth’s history (e.g., Barron and Washington

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Christian M. Appendini, Alec Torres-Freyermuth, Paulo Salles, Jose López-González, and E. Tonatiuh Mendoza

1. Introduction The knowledge of both mean and extreme wave climate is paramount for coastal and ocean engineering. For instance, the increase in the understanding of wave climatology in different areas of the world has allowed a better design of offshore/coastal structures and management, as well as better planning for shipping, design of vessels, and renewable energy assessment, among other activities. Wave climatology has been traditionally based on buoy measurements and ship observations

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Dörthe Handorf, Klaus Dethloff, Andrew G. Marshall, and Amanda Lynch

1. Introduction The regime behavior of the atmospheric flow is one key to understanding climate variability on interannual to decadal time scales. Nearly 70 yr ago, Rossby (1939) recognized that the midlatitude planetary-scale atmospheric flow is characterized by a few preferred circulation patterns. On a monthly time scale these patterns can be regarded as climate regimes. Modeling studies showed that changed radiative forcing and associated changes in the mean climate could influence the

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Haikun Zhao, Jie Zhang, Philip J. Klotzbach, and Shaohua Chen

focused on the changes of TC frequency, TC track, and TC intensity in response to climate change ( Knutson et al. 2010 ; Walsh et al. 2015 ). Forecasts of tropical cyclogenesis (TCG) remain challenging, however, especially beyond ~12–14 days where dynamical models show little skill ( Yamaguchi et al. 2015 ). Therefore, enhanced understanding of changes in TC formation location could potentially aid in future TC forecasts. The tropical Pacific climate regime shift and associated ENSO characteristic

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Lan Cuo, Yongxin Zhang, Qingchun Wang, Leilei Zhang, Bingrong Zhou, Zhenchun Hao, and Fengge Su

1. Introduction The Tibetan Plateau (TP) exerts significant influence on regional and global climate through thermal and mechanical forcing ( Manabe and Broccoli 1990 ; Yanai et al. 1992 ; Liu et al. 2007 ; Nan et al. 2009 ; Sun and Ding 2011 ; Lin and Wu 2011 ). As a headwater region of the Yellow, Yangtze, and Mekong Rivers, the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) provides water for more than a billion people and numerous ecosystems in China and Southeast Asia. Any long-term changes in

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Jan D. Keller and Sabrina Wahl

physically consistent spatiotemporal reconstruction of the (atmospheric) system’s state. Further, information from various observational sources can effectively be merged into the reanalysis. Through the use of the physical NWP model, reanalyses also allow for estimates of nonmeasurable quantities. Hence, reanalysis data considerably improve the ability to investigate climate and its variability compared to datasets created based solely on observational data or model simulations ( Trenberth et al. 2008

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