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Thomas P. Charlock and V. Ramanathan

1408 .JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Vo~..42, No. 13The Aibedo Field and Cloud Radiative Forcing Produced by a General Circulation with Internally Generated Cloud Optics THOIVIAS P. CHAR.LOCK AND V. ~JuMANATHAN* Atmospheric Sciences Division. NASA Langle~ Research Center, Hampton, VA (Manuscript received 24 September 1984, in final form 19 February 1985

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C. W. Fairall, Taneil Uttal, Duane Hazen, Jeffrey Hare, Meghan F. Cronin, Nicholas Bond, and Dana E. Veron

). This paper complements two recent papers featuring analysis of the TAO buoy observations along 95° and 110°W: studies of the annual cycle of cloud radiative forcing at the surface ( Cronin et al. 2006a ) and the annual cycle of sensible and latent heat fluxes ( Cronin et al. 2006b ). The first paper found disagreements as large as 100 W m −2 between buoy radiative flux observations and NWP reanalysis values; the second paper found disagreements of the same order for latent heat flux. The

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Matthew D. Shupe and Janet M. Intrieri

( Minnett 1999 ; Curry et al. 1996 ). The balance of these SW and LW effects is referred to as cloud radiative forcing (CF), with positive CF indicating that clouds warm the surface relative to clear skies, and negative CF indicating that clouds cool the surface. Using surface-based measurements, Intrieri et al. (2002a) showed that over the permanent ice pack in the western Arctic basin, clouds warm the surface through most of the year except for a short period in midsummer when their albedo effect

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Richard P. Allan, A. Slingo, and M. A. Ringer

(SW), and net (NET) cloud radiative forcing (CF) diagnostic and the ratio, N = −SWCF/LWCF. For definitions and background, see Cess et al. (2001) . As noted by Kiehl and Ramanathan (1990) , over regions of deep tropical convection the values of LW and SW CF are large and similar in magnitude although they have opposing signs, so that NET CF is approximately zero and N ∼ 1. Kiehl (1994) argued that this near cancellation is caused by deep, optically thick clouds with tops located near the

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Steve Vavrus

1. Introduction Arctic clouds exert a large influence on the surface radiation budget, reducing wintertime cooling of the surface by 40–50 W m −2 and summertime surface heating by 20–30 W m −2 ( Curry et al. 1996 ). The net effect of Arctic clouds during the course of the year is a warming of the surface except for a period during summer, but the precise nature of the cloud radiative forcing is a complicated function of cloud fraction, height, thickness, and water content ( Curry and Ebert

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S. Garimella, D. A. Rothenberg, M. J. Wolf, C. Wang, and D. J. Cziczo

to be that of effective mineral dusts: S ice = 1.1 ( Hoose et al. 2008 ). The onset of immersion freezing is at water saturation ( Pruppacher and Klett 1997 ). As noted in the text, reported CFDC data more closely resemble (b) than (a) ( Garimella et al. 2016 ; DeMott et al. 2015 ). Here, we consider the effect of this bias on simulated cloud radiative forcing using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model, version 1.2.2, with the Community Atmosphere Model

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M. H. Zhang, R. D. Cess, and S. C. Xie

1374 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME 9Relationship between Cloud Radiative Forcing and Sea Surface Temperatures over the Entire Tropical Oceans 'M. H. ZH~O, R. D. CEss, AND S. C. XIEInstitute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres, State Univers!ty of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York(Manuscript received 23 May 1995, in final form 27 November

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Xiquan Dong, Baike Xi, and Patrick Minnis

properties such as cloud amount, height, and microphysical/optical features ( Wielicki et al. 1998 ; Curry et al. 2000 ; Houghton et al. 2001 ). Characterizing cloud effects on the surface radiation budget is a critical component for understanding the current climate and an important step toward simulating potential climate change. Cloud radiative forcing (CRF; W m −2 ), the change in the net radiation budget due to clouds ( Ramanathan et al. 1989 ), represents the bulk effects of clouds on the

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Xiquan Dong and Gerald G. Mace

validating satellite retrievals using data collected at Barrow, we have compiled a 5-month record of single-layer and overcast low-level stratus cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties, as well as surface radiation budget and cloud radiative forcing using data collected at the ARM NSA site near Barrow, Alaska, from May to September 2000 (referred to collectively as the summer 2000 results). During this period, the liquid-phase and liquid dominant mixed-phase low-level Arctic stratus

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Axel J. Schweiger and Jeffrey R. Key

948 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME33Arctic Ocean Radiative Fluxes and Cloud Forcing Estimated from the ISCCP C2 Cloud Dataset, 1983-1990 AXEL J. $CHWEIGERPolar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington JEFFREY R. K~YCooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Division of Cryospheric

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