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Sara Lance

). The effect of aerosols on clouds is also important and remains the most uncertain climate forcing. In addition to increased cloud albedo resulting from greater CCN concentrations for a given cloud liquid water content (LWC) ( Twomey 1959 ), initiation of precipitation within marine boundary layer clouds may be inhibited by greater CCN concentrations ( Albrecht 1989 ; Brenguier and Wood 2009 ). Changes to the onset or intensity of precipitation can affect both the radiative balance and the

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Timothy J. Wagner, David D. Turner, Larry K. Berg, and Steven K. Krueger

on the diurnal time scale. A widespread cumulus field formed on 18 June 2009 above much of central Oklahoma and northern Texas in the absence of any significant synoptic forcing. The primary cloud presence in the morning was a cirrus shield composed of the remnants of an anvil that formed from a severe thunderstorm over the Texas Panhandle the day before. This anvil prevented the surface at the SGP site from receiving the maximum amount of insulation and inhibited diabatic heating at the surface

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Lihua Li, Gerald M. Heymsfield, Paul E. Racette, Lin Tian, and Ed Zenker

1. Introduction Clouds are a key element in the global hydrological cycle, and they have a significant role in the earth's energy budget through its influence on radiation budgets. Climate model simulations have demonstrated the importance of clouds in moderating and forcing the global energy budget ( Houghton et al. 1995 ; Stephens et al. 1990 ). Despite the crucial role of clouds in climate and the breadth of our current knowledge, there are still many unanswered details ( Stephens et al

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Frank P. Kelly, Thomas H. Vonder Haar, and Paul W. Mielke Jr.

effectslocal forcing mechanisms (e.g., orographic features andclimatic location) have on weather patterns. To maximize the utility of the satellite cloud images, whileconcurrently minimizing the data analysis requirements of the meteorologist, objective analysis methodsare desired. A persistent difficulty is quantitativelychoosing the optimum analysis method. Meteorological satellites provide a favorable perspective for observing the Earth-Atmosphere-Hydrosphere (EAH) system as depicted from

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J. C. H. van der Hage and S. R. de Roode

1. Introduction Absorption or scattering of light in a cloud volume or in a volume of clear air is indifferent to the direction of the incident radiation; photons traveling upward or horizontally are absorbed alike. This cannot be said for absorption of radiation by a two-dimensional surface. The horizontal surface of the earth absorbs no upwelling or horizontal light; it can only absorb radiation with a downward component. Therefore, climatologists generally determine global shortwave

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Andrew Detwiler and Hillyer G. Norment

, and from a summer faculty research program at the Phillips Laboratory sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. REFERENCES Baumgardner, D., and M. Spowart, 1990: Evaluation of the forward scattering spectrometer probe. Part III: Time response and laser inhomogeneity limitations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 7, 666–672. 10.1175/1520-0426(1990)007<0666:EOTFSS>2.0.CO;2 Davis, L. G., and R. P. Lawson, 1987: Research and development to acquire and reduce melting layer cloud physics

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Igor Podgorny, Dan Lubin, and Donald K. Perovich

Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 50 , 1033 – 1047 , . 10.1109/TGRS.2011.2167339 de Boer , G. , and Coauthors , 2016 : The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 9 , 1845 – 1857 , . 10.5194/amt-9-1845-2016 Dong , X. , and G. G. Mace , 2003 : Arctic stratus cloud properties and radiative forcing from ground-based data collected at Barrow, Alaska . J. Climate

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Abidán Cerdeña, Albano González, and Juan C. Pérez

). Hanscom Air Force Base, AFGL Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0100, 46 pp . Baum, B. A. , Arduini R. F. , Wielicki B. A. , Minnis P. , and Tsay S. , 1994 : Multilevel cloud retrieval using multispectral HIRS and AVHRR data: Nighttime oceanic analysis. J. Geophys. Res. , 99 , 5499 – 5514 . 10.1029/93JD02856 Baum, B. A. , Frey R. , Mace G. G. , Harkey M. K. , and Yang P. , 2003 : Nighttime multilayered cloud detection using MODIS and ARM data. J. Appl. Meteor. , 42 , 905 – 919 . 10

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Zhe Feng, Xiquan Dong, and Baike Xi

radiative forcing. J. Climate , 19 , 1765 – 1783 . 10.1175/JCLI3710.1 Dong, X. , and Coauthors , 2008 : Using observations of deep convective systems to constrain atmospheric column absorption in the optically thick limit. J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D10206 . doi:10.1029/2007JD009769 . 10.1029/2007JD009769 Heymsfield, A. J. , and Hjelmfelt M. R. , 1984 : Processes of hydrometeor development in Oklahoma convective clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. , 41 , 2811 – 2835 . 10

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Jérôme Vidot, Ralf Bennartz, Christopher W. O’Dell, René Preusker, Rasmus Lindstrot, and Andrew K. Heidinger

1. Introduction The mixing ratio of atmospheric CO 2 has increased from 275 to ∼380 ppm in the last 1000 yr. Whereas the first 50-ppm increase was reached in the 1970s, the second 50-ppm increase was achieved in about 30 yr, with a 19-ppm increase occurring between 1995 and 2005. This increase in CO 2 mixing ratios continues to yield the largest sustained radiative forcing of any radiative atmospheric component ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). To better understand the relationship between the CO 2

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