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Bin Wang, Tianming Li, and Ping Chang

cyclecan significantly modify the annual mean ML temperature and the depths of the thermocline and ML.The transient effect tends to lower the annual meanSST in the tropical Pacific Ocean by 0.5--1.5-C. It ismost significant in the vicinity of the ITCZ, which migrates annually back and forth between 4- and 12-N. The most serious problem with modeling the annualcycle of SST is the phase delay. This problem is likelyrelated to the uncertainty in the surface heat flux forcing(in particular, the cloud

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Chiang C. Mei and Chimin Chian

related to Euledan streaming inside the boundary layer, weighted by the mean concentration profile,Particular examples are examined for the release of a finite cloud of suspension beneath gravity waves at variouslocations relative to the wave pattern.1. Introduction Taylor's ( 1953) pioneering work on dispersion in asteady flow through a tube has been extended to oscillatory flows by many authors. For laminar flows, thecase of an oscillatory axial flow in a uniform tube wasfirst treated by Aris

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Richard Seager

inextricably linked to the Southern Oscillation (e.g., Rasmusson and Wallace 1983)and in the ocean to the occurrence of El Nifio (e.g.Cane 1983). Though these phenomena are two aspectsof a coupled system, in this paper we will consider onlythe interannual variability of the ocean in response toprescribed atmospheric forcing. The period consideredcovers January 1970 to September 1987. The first explanations for the warming of sea surfacetemperature (SST) in the eastern Pacific observed during El Nifio

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Lingling Liu, Yuanlong Li, and Fan Wang

Li et al. (2013) . Surface atmospheric forcing fields include surface winds from CCMP for 2000–11 and ASCAT for 2012–14, 1° × 1° surface shortwave radiation (SWR) and longwave radiation (LWR) from Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES; Wielicki et al. 1996 ; Loeb et al. 2001 ), 0.25° × 0.25° precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) level 3B42 product ( Kummerow et al. 1998 ; Huffman et al. 2007 ), and 0.75° × 0

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Tomoko Inui, Alban Lazar, Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli, and Antonio Busalacchi

his solution does not apply. Therefore, the major objective of this paper is to investigate and explore the sensitivity of the above scenario, especially the presence or absence of the interior exchange window from which tracers or temperature anomalies propagate without changing their properties to the surface forcings. Wind stress, heat, and moisture fluxes will be used in numerical simulations for the Atlantic to study such dependencies. We will use a modified LPS model as well. The basin is

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Rodolfo Bolaños, Jennifer M. Brown, Laurent O. Amoudry, and Alejandro J. Souza

currents) from Irish Sea simulations (approximately 1.8 km resolution) and by an initial condition for salinity of 35 PSU and for temperature of 7°C. Atmospheric forcing was generated by the Met Office Northwest European Continental Shelf (~12-km resolution, mesoscale) model, and comprised hourly wind velocity at 10 m and atmospheric pressure as well as air temperature, relative humidity, and cloud cover every three hours. Within POLCOMS, 15 tidal harmonics were considered for the tide only run. Daily

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Gengxin Chen, Weiqing Han, Yuanlong Li, Jinglong Yao, and Dongxiao Wang

.g., Wallcraft et al. 2009 ) version 2.2.18, which is configured to the Indian Ocean Basin (30°–122.5°E, 50°S–30°N) with a horizontal resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° and 26 vertical layers ( Li et al. 2014 , 2015 ). The surface atmospheric forcing fields include 10-m winds from the CCMP version 1.1 product, the 0.25° × 0.25° Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) satellite ocean surface vector winds, 1° × 1° surface net shortwave radiation (SWR) and longwave radiation (LWR) from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant

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Jean-Philippe Paquin, Youyu Lu, Simon Higginson, Frédéric Dupont, and Gilles Garric

stratified. Second, a cyclonic circulation in the upper-layer domes the isopycnals toward the surface, bringing higher density waters upward in the water column. Third, strong atmospheric forcing causes extensive cooling of the ocean over the winter period to erode the surface stratification and the summertime thermocline. Besides the Greenland Sea and the Labrador Sea, the southwestern Irminger Sea has been identified as an area with conditions favorable for deep convection ( Pickart et al. 2003a , b

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Scott C. Doney, Steve Yeager, Gokhan Danabasoglu, William G. Large, and James C. McWilliams

(surface winds, air temperature, and humidity) ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) supplemented by monthly satellite estimates of cloud fraction ( Rossow and Schiffer 1991 ), surface insolation ( Bishop and Rossow 1991 ; Bishop et al. 1997 ), and precipitation ( Xie and Arkin 1996 ; Spencer 1993 ). The satellite forcing datasets cover only a portion of the full 40-yr historical period: radiation and clouds (July 1983–June 1991) and precipitation (1979 and later). In the periods with no satellite coverage, we use

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Shenn-Yu Chao and Ping-Tung Shaw

forcing has features dissimilar to thesubmerged eddies under Arctic ice, In the case of shallow forcing with depth scales about 100 m or so, surfacefriction can quickly eliminate the top eddy while leaving the lower eddy intact. This leads to the counterintuitiveresults that warming or freshening generates a submerged cyclone, while cooling or brine ejection produces asubmerged anticyclone. The resulting eddies have many attributes of observed Arctic eddies under sea ice.1. Introduction Arctic

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